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  1. Photocatalytic water splitting is a wireless method for solar-to-hydrogen conversion. To date, however, the efficiency of photocatalytic water splitting is still very low. Here, we have investigated the design, synthesis, and characterization of quadruple-band InGaN nanowire arrays, which consist of In 0.35 Ga 0.65 N, In 0.27 Ga 0.73 N, In 0.20 Ga 0.80 N, and GaN segments, with energy bandgaps of ∼2.1 eV, 2.4 eV, 2.6 eV, and 3.4 eV, respectively. Such multi-band InGaN nanowire arrays are integrated directly on a nonplanar wafer for enhanced light absorption. Moreover, a doping gradient is introduced along the lateral dimension of the nanowires, which forms a built-in electric field and promotes efficient charge carrier separation and extraction for water redox reactions. We have demonstrated that the quadruple-band InGaN nanowire photocatalyst can exhibit a solar-to-hydrogen efficiency of ∼5.2% with relatively stable operation. This work demonstrates a novel strategy using multi-band semiconductor nanostructures for artificial photosynthesis and solar fuel conversion with significantly improved performance. 
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