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  1. We report on the free charge carrier properties of a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in an AlN/Al x Ga 1– x N high electron mobility transistor structure with a high aluminum content ( x =  0.78). The 2DEG sheet density [Formula: see text] cm −2 , sheet mobility [Formula: see text] cm 2 /(Vs), sheet resistance [Formula: see text] [Formula: see text], and effective mass [Formula: see text] at low temperatures [Formula: see text] are determined by terahertz (THz) optical Hall effect measurements. The experimental 2DEG mobility in the channel is found within the expected range, and the sheet carrier density is in good agreement with self-consistent Poisson–Schrödinger calculations. However, a significant increase in the effective mass of 2DEG electrons at low temperatures is found in comparison with the respective value in bulk Al 0.78 Ga 22 N ([Formula: see text]). Possible mechanisms for the enhanced 2DEG effective mass parameter are discussed and quantified using self-consistent Poisson–Schrödinger calculations.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 20, 2023
  2. The hot-wall metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) concept, previously shown to enable superior material quality and high performance devices based on wide bandgap semiconductors, such as Ga(Al)N and SiC, has been applied to the epitaxial growth of β-Ga 2 O 3 . Epitaxial β-Ga 2 O 3 layers at high growth rates (above 1 μm/h), at low reagent flows, and at reduced growth temperatures (740 °C) are demonstrated. A high crystalline quality epitaxial material on a c-plane sapphire substrate is attained as corroborated by a combination of x-ray diffraction, high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy, and spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements. The hot-wall MOCVD process is transferred to homoepitaxy, and single-crystalline homoepitaxial β-Ga 2 O 3 layers are demonstrated with a [Formula: see text]01 rocking curve width of 118 arc sec, which is comparable to those of the edge-defined film-fed grown ([Formula: see text]01) β-Ga 2 O 3 substrates, indicative of similar dislocation densities for epilayers and substrates. Hence, hot-wall MOCVD is proposed as a prospective growth method to be further explored for the fabrication of β-Ga 2 O 3 .
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2023
  3. We report the elevated temperature (22 °C [Formula: see text]  T [Formula: see text] 600 °C) dielectric function properties of melt grown single crystal ZnGa2O4using a spectroscopic ellipsometry approach. A temperature dependent Cauchy dispersion analysis was applied across the transparent spectrum to determine the high-frequency index of refraction yielding a temperature dependent slope of 3.885(2) × 10−5 K−1. A model dielectric function critical point analysis was applied to examine the dielectric function and critical point transitions for each temperature. The lowest energy M0-type critical point associated with the direct bandgap transition in ZnGa2O4is shown to red-shift linearly as the temperature is increased with a subsequent slope of −0.72(4) meV K−1. Furthermore, increasing the temperature results in a reduction of the excitonic amplitude and increase in the exciton broadening akin to exciton evaporation and lifetime shortening. This matches current theoretical understanding of excitonic behavior and critically provides justification for an anharmonic broadened Lorentz oscillator to be applied for model analysis of excitonic contributions.

    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 31, 2023
  4. We determine the composition dependence of the transverse and longitudinal optical infrared-active phonon modes in rhombohedral α-(AlxGa1−x)2O3alloys by far-infrared and infrared generalized spectroscopic ellipsometry. Single-crystalline high quality undoped thin-films grown on m-plane oriented α-Al2O3substrates with x =  0.18, 0.37, and 0.54 were investigated. A single mode behavior is observed for all phonon modes, i.e., their frequencies shift gradually between the equivalent phonon modes of the isostructural binary parent compounds. We also provide physical model line shape functions for the anisotropic dielectric functions. We use the anisotropic high-frequency dielectric constants for polarizations parallel and perpendicular to the lattice c axis measured recently by Hilfiker et al. [Appl. Phys. Lett. 119, 092103 (2021)], and we determine the anisotropic static dielectric constants using the Lyddane–Sachs–Teller relation. The static dielectric constants can be approximated by linear relationships between those of α-Ga2O3and α-Al2O3. The optical phonon modes and static dielectric constants will become useful for device design and free charge carrier characterization using optical techniques.

    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 16, 2023
  5. We report on terahertz (THz) electron paramagnetic resonance generalized spectroscopic ellipsometry (THz-EPR-GSE). Measurements of field and frequency dependencies of magnetic response due to spin transitions associated with nitrogen defects in 4H-SiC are shown as an example. THz-EPR-GSE dispenses with the need of a cavity, permits independently scanning field and frequency parameters, and does not require field or frequency modulation. We investigate spin transitions of hexagonal ( h) and cubic ( k) coordinated nitrogen including coupling with its nuclear spin (I = 1), and we propose a model approach for the magnetic susceptibility to account for the spin transitions. From the THz-EPR-GSE measurements, we can fully determine polarization properties of the spin transitions, and we can obtain the k coordinated nitrogen g and hyperfine splitting parameters using magnetic field and frequency dependent Lorentzian oscillator line shape functions. Magnetic-field line broadening presently obscures access to h parameters. We show that measurements of THz-EPR-GSE at positive and negative fields differ fundamentally and hence provide additional information. We propose frequency-scanning THz-EPR-GSE as a versatile method to study properties of spins in solid state materials.

    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 8, 2023
  6. This Review highlights basic and transition metal conducting and semiconducting oxides. We discuss their material and electronic properties with an emphasis on the crystal, electronic, and band structures. The goal of this Review is to present a current compilation of material properties and to summarize possible uses and advantages in device applications. We discuss Ga 2 O 3 , Al 2 O 3 , In 2 O 3 , SnO 2 , ZnO, CdO, NiO, CuO, and Sc 2 O 3 . We outline the crystal structure of the oxides, and we present lattice parameters of the stable phases and a discussion of the metastable polymorphs. We highlight electrical properties such as bandgap energy, carrier mobility, effective carrier masses, dielectric constants, and electrical breakdown field. Based on literature availability, we review the temperature dependence of properties such as bandgap energy and carrier mobility among the oxides. Infrared and Raman modes are presented and discussed for each oxide providing insight into the phonon properties. The phonon properties also provide an explanation as to why some of the oxide parameters experience limitations due to phonon scattering such as carrier mobility. Thermal properties of interest include the coefficient of thermal expansion, Debye temperature,more »thermal diffusivity, specific heat, and thermal conductivity. Anisotropy is evident in the non-cubic oxides, and its impact on bandgap energy, carrier mobility, thermal conductivity, coefficient of thermal expansion, phonon modes, and carrier effective mass is discussed. Alloys, such as AlGaO, InGaO, (Al x In y Ga 1− x− y ) 2 O 3 , ZnGa 2 O 4 , ITO, and ScGaO, were included where relevant as they have the potential to allow for the improvement and alteration of certain properties. This Review provides a fundamental material perspective on the application space of semiconducting oxide-based devices in a variety of electronic and optoelectronic applications.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2023
  7. Abstract The lattice symmetry of a crystal is one of the most important factors in determining its physical properties. Particularly, low-symmetry crystals offer powerful opportunities to control light propagation, polarization and phase 1–4 . Materials featuring extreme optical anisotropy can support a hyperbolic response, enabling coupled light–matter interactions, also known as polaritons, with highly directional propagation and compression of light to deeply sub-wavelength scales 5 . Here we show that monoclinic crystals can support hyperbolic shear polaritons, a new polariton class arising in the mid-infrared to far-infrared due to shear phenomena in the dielectric response. This feature emerges in materials in which the dielectric tensor cannot be diagonalized, that is, in low-symmetry monoclinic and triclinic crystals in which several oscillators with non-orthogonal relative orientations contribute to the optical response 6,7 . Hyperbolic shear polaritons complement previous observations of hyperbolic phonon polaritons in orthorhombic 1,3,4 and hexagonal 8,9 crystal systems, unveiling new features, such as the continuous evolution of their propagation direction with frequency, tilted wavefronts and asymmetric responses. The interplay between diagonal loss and off-diagonal shear phenomena in the dielectric response of these materials has implications for new forms of non-Hermitian and topological photonic states. We anticipate that our resultsmore »will motivate new directions for polariton physics in low-symmetry materials, which include geological minerals 10 , many common oxides 11 and organic crystals 12 , greatly expanding the material base and extending design opportunities for compact photonic devices.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 24, 2023
  8. Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 28, 2023
  9. Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2023