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  1. Nowadays, the behavior tree is gaining popularity as a representation for robot tasks due to its modularity and reusability. Designing behavior-tree tasks manually is a time-consuming work for robot end- users, thus suggests a need for automatic behavior-tree task generation. Prior behavior-tree generation approaches focus on fixed primitive tasks and lack generalizability to new task domains. To cope with this issue, we propose a novel behavior-tree task generation approach with state-of-the-art large language models. We present a Phase-Step prompt design that enables hierarchical-structured robot task generation. We further integrate with behavior-tree-embedding-based search to set up the appropriate prompt. In such way, we enable automatic and cross-domain behavior-tree task generation. Our task generation approach does not require a set of pre-defined primitive tasks. End-user only needs to describe an abstract desired task and our approach can swiftly generate the corresponding behavior tree. Case studies are provided to demonstrate our approach. 
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  2. Martin, A ; Hinkelmann, K ; Fill, H ; Gerber, A ; Lenat, D. ; Stolle, R. ; van Harmelen, F (Ed.)
    Nowadays, the behavior tree is gaining popularity as a representation for robot tasks due to its modularity and reusability. Designing behavior-tree tasks manually is time-consuming for robot end-users, thus there is a need for investigating automatic behavior-tree-based task generation. Prior behavior-tree- based task generation approaches focus on fixed primitive tasks and lack generalizability to new task domains. To cope with this issue, we propose a novel behavior-tree-based task generation approach that utilizes state-of-the-art large language models. We propose a Phase-Step prompt design that enables a hierarchical-structured robot task generation and further integrate it with behavior-tree-embedding- based search to set up the appropriate prompt. In this way, we enable an automatic and cross-domain behavior-tree task generation. Our behavior-tree-based task generation approach does not require a set of pre-defined primitive tasks. End-users only need to describe an abstract desired task and our proposed approach can swiftly generate the corresponding behavior tree. A full-process case study is provided to demonstrate our proposed approach. An ablation study is conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of our Phase-Step prompts. Assessment on Phase-Step prompts and the limitation of large language models are presented and discussed. 
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  3. Nowadays, the behavior tree is gaining popularity as a representation for robot tasks due to its modularity and reusability. Designing behavior-tree tasks manually is time-consuming for robot end-users, thus there is a need for investigating automatic behavior-tree-based task generation. Prior behavior-tree- based task generation approaches focus on fixed primitive tasks and lack generalizability to new task domains. To cope with this issue, we propose a novel behavior-tree-based task generation approach that utilizes state-of-the-art large language models. We propose a Phase-Step prompt design that enables a hierarchical-structured robot task generation and further integrate it with behavior-tree-embedding- based search to set up the appropriate prompt. In this way, we enable an automatic and cross-domain behavior-tree task generation. Our behavior-tree-based task generation approach does not require a set of pre-defined primitive tasks. End-users only need to describe an abstract desired task and our proposed approach can swiftly generate the corresponding behavior tree. A full-process case study is provided to demonstrate our proposed approach. An ablation study is conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of our Phase-Step prompts. Assessment on Phase-Step prompts and the limitation of large language models are presented and discussed. 
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  4. Bebis, G. et (Ed.)
    In this paper, we extend the traditional few-shot learning (FSL) problem to the situation when the source-domain data is not accessible but only high-level information in the form of class prototypes is available. This limited information setup for the FSL problem deserves much attention due to its implication of privacy-preserving inaccessibility to the source-domain data but it has rarely been addressed before. Because of limited training data, we propose a non-parametric approach to this FSL problem by assuming that all the class prototypes are structurally arranged on a manifold. Accordingly, we estimate the novel-class prototype locations by projecting the few-shot samples onto the average of the subspaces on which the surrounding classes lie. During classification, we again exploit the structural arrangement of the categories by inducing a Markov chain on the graph constructed with the class prototypes. This manifold distance obtained using the Markov chain is expected to produce better results compared to a traditional nearest- neighbor-based Euclidean distance. To evaluate our proposed framework, we have tested it on two image datasets – the large-scale ImageNet and the small-scale but fine-grained CUB-200. We have also studied parameter sensitivity to better understand our framework. 
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  5. In this paper, we address the Online Unsupervised Domain Adapta- tion (OUDA) problem, where the target data are unlabelled and ar- riving sequentially. The traditional methods on the OUDA problem mainly focus on transforming each arriving target data to the source domain, and they do not sufficiently consider the temporal coherency and accumulative statistics among the arriving target data. We pro- pose a multi-step framework for the OUDA problem, which insti- tutes a novel method to compute the mean-target subspace inspired by the geometrical interpretation on the Euclidean space. This mean- target subspace contains accumulative temporal information among the arrived target data. Moreover, the transformation matrix com- puted from the mean-target subspace is applied to the next target data as a preprocessing step, aligning the target data closer to the source domain. Experiments on four datasets demonstrated the con- tribution of each step in our proposed multi-step OUDA framework and its performance over previous approaches. 
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  6. Zero-shot learning (ZSL) for image classification focuses on recognizing novel categories that have no labeled data available for training. The learning is generally carried out with the help of mid-level semantic descriptors associated with each class. This semantic-descriptor space is generally shared by both seen and unseen categories. However, ZSL suffers from hubness, domain discrepancy and biased-ness towards seen classes. To tackle these problems, we propose a three-step approach to zero-shot learning. Firstly, a mapping is learned from the semantic-descriptor space to the image- feature space. This mapping learns to minimize both one-to- one and pairwise distances between semantic embeddings and the image features of the corresponding classes. Secondly, we propose test-time domain adaptation to adapt the semantic embedding of the unseen classes to the test data. This is achieved by finding correspondences between the semantic descriptors and the image features. Thirdly, we propose scaled calibration on the classification scores of the seen classes. This is necessary because the ZSL model is biased towards seen classes as the unseen classes are not used in the training. Finally, to validate the proposed three-step approach, we performed experiments on four benchmark datasets where the proposed method outperformed previous results. We also studied and analyzed the performance of each component of our proposed ZSL framework. 
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  7. Domain adaptation (DA) addresses the real-world image classification problem of discrepancy between training (source) and testing (target) data distributions. We propose an unsupervised DA method that considers the presence of only unlabelled data in the target do- main. Our approach centers on finding matches between samples of the source and target domains. The matches are obtained by treating the source and target domains as hyper-graphs and carrying out a class-regularized hyper-graph matching using first-, second- and third-order similarities between the graphs. We have also developed a computationally efficient algorithm by initially selecting a subset of the samples to construct a graph and then developing a customized optimization routine for graph-matching based on Conditional Gradient and Alternating Direction Multiplier Method. This allows the proposed method to be used widely. We also performed a set of experiments on standard object recognition datasets to validate the effectiveness of our framework over previous approaches. 
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