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  1. null (Ed.)
    Abstract In plants, root hairs undergo a highly polarized form of cell expansion called tip-growth, in which cell wall deposition is restricted to the root hair apex. In order to identify essential cellular components that might have been missed in earlier genetic screens, we identified conditional temperature-sensitive (ts) root hair mutants by ethyl methanesulfonate mutagenesis in Arabidopsis thaliana. Here, we describe one of these mutants, feronia-temperature sensitive (fer-ts). Mutant fer-ts seedlings were unaffected at normal temperatures (20°C), but failed to form root hairs at elevated temperatures (30°C). Map based-cloning and whole-genome sequencing revealed that fer-ts resulted from a G41S substitution in the extracellular domain of FERONIA (FER). A functional fluorescent fusion of FER containing the fer-ts mutation localized to plasma membranes, but was subject to enhanced protein turnover at elevated temperatures. While tip-growth was rapidly inhibited by addition of rapid alkalinization factor 1 (RALF1) peptides in both wild-type and fer-ts mutants at normal temperatures, root elongation of fer-ts seedlings was resistant to added RALF1 peptide at elevated temperatures. Additionally, at elevated temperatures fer-ts seedlings displayed altered reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation upon auxin treatment and phenocopied constitutive fer mutant responses to a variety of plant hormone treatments. Molecular modeling andmore »sequence comparison with other Catharanthus roseus receptor-like kinase 1L (CrRLK1L) receptor family members revealed that the mutated glycine in fer-ts is highly conserved, but is not located within the recently characterized RALF23 and LORELI-LIKE-GLYCOPROTEIN 2 binding domains, perhaps suggesting that fer-ts phenotypes may not be directly due to loss of binding to RALF1 peptides.« less
  2. In plants, changes in cell size and shape during development fundamentally depend on the ability to synthesize and modify cell wall polysaccharides. The main classes of cell wall polysaccharides produced by terrestrial plants are cellulose, hemicelluloses, and pectins. Members of the cellulose synthase (CESA) and cellulose synthase-like (CSL) families encode glycosyltransferases that synthesize the β-1,4-linked glycan backbones of cellulose and most hemicellulosic polysaccharides that comprise plant cell walls. Cellulose microfibrils are the major load-bearing component in plant cell walls and are assembled from individual β-1,4-glucan polymers synthesized by CESA proteins that are organized into multimeric complexes called CESA complexes, in the plant plasma membrane. During distinct modes of polarized cell wall deposition, such as in the tip growth that occurs during the formation of root hairs and pollen tubes or de novo formation of cell plates during plant cytokinesis, newly synthesized cell wall polysaccharides are deposited in a restricted region of the cell. These processes require the activity of members of the CESA-like D subfamily. However, while these CSLD polysaccharide synthases are essential, the nature of the polysaccharides they synthesize has remained elusive. Here, we use a combination of genetic rescue experiments with CSLD-CESA chimeric proteins, in vitro biochemical reconstitution,more »and supporting computational modeling and simulation, to demonstrate that Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) CSLD3 is a UDP-glucose-dependent β-1,4-glucan synthase that forms protein complexes displaying similar ultrastructural features to those formed by CESA6.« less
  3. Small GTP-binding proteins represent a highly conserved signaling module in eukaryotes that regulates diverse cellular processes such as signal transduction, cytoskeletal organization and cell polarity, cell proliferation and differentiation, intracellular membrane trafficking and transport vesicle formation, and nucleocytoplasmic transport. These proteins function as molecular switches that cycle between active and inactive states, and this cycle is linked to GTP binding and hydrolysis. In this review, the roles of the plant complement of small GTP-binding proteins in these cellular processes are described, as well as accessory proteins that control their activity, and current understanding of the functions of individual members of these families in plants—with a focus on the model organism Arabidopsis—is presented. Some potential novel roles of these GTPases in plants, relative to their established roles in yeast and/or animal systems, are also discussed.