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  1. A microsecond time-scale photonic lift-off (PLO) process was used to fabricate mechanically flexible photovoltaic devices (PVs) with a total thickness of less than 20 μm. PLO is a rapid, scalable photothermal technique for processing extremely thin, mechanically flexible electronic and optoelectronic devices. PLO is also compatible with large-area devices, roll-to-roll processing, and substrates with low temperature compatibility. As a proof of concept, PVs were fabricated using CuInSe2 nanocrystal ink deposited at room temperature under ambient conditions on thin, plastic substrates heated to 100 °C. It was necessary to prevent cracking of the brittle top contact layer of indium tin oxide (ITO) during lift-off, either by using a layer of silver nanowires (AgNW) as the top contact or by infusing the ITO layer with AgNW. This approach could generally be used to improve the mechanical versatility of current collectors in a variety of ultrathin electronic and optoelectronic devices requiring a transparent conductive contact layer.
  2. CuInSe2 nanocrystals offer promise for optoelectronics including thin-film photovoltaics and printed electronics. Additive manufacturing methods such as photonic curing controllably sinter particles into quasi-continuous films and offer improved device performance. To gain understanding of nanocrystal response under such processing conditions, we investigate impacts of photoexcitation on colloidal nanocrystal lattices via time-resolved X-ray diffraction. We probe three sizes of particles and two capping ligands (oleylamine and inorganic S2–) to evaluate resultant crystal lattice temperature, phase stability, and thermal dissipation. Elevated fluences produce heating and loss of crystallinity, the onset of which exhibits particle size dependence. We find size-dependent recrystallization and cooling lifetimes ranging from 90 to 200 ps with additional slower cooling on the nanosecond time scale. Sulfide-capped nanocrystals show faster recrystallization and cooling compared to oleylamine-capped nanocrystals. Using these lifetimes, we find interfacial thermal conductivities from 3 to 28 MW/(m2 K), demonstrating that ligand identity strongly influences thermal dissipation.