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  1. In a multi-user system with multiple antennas at the base station, precoding techniques in the downlink broadcast channel allow users to detect their respective data in a non-cooperative manner. Vector Perturbation Precoding (VPP) is a non-linear variant of transmit-side channel inversion that perturbs user data to achieve full diversity order. While promising, finding an optimal perturbation in VPP is known to be an NP-hard problem, demanding heavy computational support at the base station and limiting the feasibility of the approach to small MIMO systems. This work proposes a radically different processing architecture for the downlink VPP problem, one based onmore »Quantum Annealing (QA), to enable the applicability of VPP to large MIMO systems. Our design reduces VPP to a quadratic polynomial form amenable to QA, then refines the problem coefficients to mitigate the adverse effects of QA hardware noise. We evaluate our proposed QA based VPP (QAVP) technique on a real Quantum Annealing device over a variety of design and machine parameter settings. With existing hardware, QAVP can achieve a BER of 10 −4 with 100µs compute time, for a 6 × 6 MIMO system using 64 QAM modulation at 32 dB SNR.« less
  2. Overcoming the conventional trade-off between throughput and bit error rate (BER) performance, versus computational complexity is a long-term challenge for uplink Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) detection in base station design for the cellular 5G New Radio roadmap, as well as in next generation wireless local area networks. In this work, we present ParaMax, a MIMO detector architecture that for the first time brings to bear physics-inspired parallel tempering algorithmic techniques [28, 50, 67] on this class of problems. ParaMax can achieve near optimal maximum-likelihood (ML) throughput performance in the Large MIMO regime, Massive MIMO systems where the base station has additionalmore »RF chains, to approach the number of base station antennas, in order to support even more parallel spatial streams. ParaMax is able to achieve a near ML-BER performance up to 160 × 160 and 80 × 80 Large MIMO for low-order modulations such as BPSK and QPSK, respectively, only requiring less than tens of processing elements. With respect to Massive MIMO systems, in 12 × 24 MIMO with 16-QAM at SNR 16 dB, ParaMax achieves 330 Mbits/s near-optimal system throughput with 4--8 processing elements per subcarrier, which is approximately 1.4× throughput than linear detector-based Massive MIMO systems.« less
  3. With unprecedented increases in traffic load in today's wireless networks, design challenges shift from the wireless network itself to the computational support behind the wireless network. In this vein, there is new interest in quantum-compute approaches because of their potential to substantially speed up processing, and so improve network throughput. However, quantum hardware that actually exists today is much more susceptible to computational errors than silicon-based hardware, due to the physical phenomena of decoherence and noise. This paper explores the boundary between the two types of computation---classical-quantum hybrid processing for optimization problems in wireless systems---envisioning how wireless can simultaneously leveragemore »the benefit of both approaches. We explore the feasibility of a hybrid system with a real hardware prototype using one of the most advanced experimentally available techniques today, reverse quantum annealing. Preliminary results on a low-latency, large MIMO system envisioned in the 5G New Radio roadmap are encouraging, showing approximately 2--10\times× better performance in terms of processing time than prior published results.« less
  4. User demand for increasing amounts of wireless capacity continues to outpace supply, and so to meet this demand, significant progress has been made in new MIMO wireless physical layer techniques. Higher-performance systems now remain impractical largely only because their algorithms are extremely computationally demanding. For optimal performance, an amount of computation that increases at an exponential rate both with the number of users and with the data rate of each user is often required. The base station's computational capacity is thus becoming one of the key limiting factors on wireless capacity. QuAMax is the first large MIMO cloud-based radio accessmore »network design to address this issue by leveraging quantum annealing on the problem. We have implemented QuAMax on the 2,031 qubit D-Wave 2000Q quantum annealer, the state-of-the-art in the field. Our experimental results evaluate that implementation on real and synthetic MIMO channel traces, showing that 30 US of compute time on the 2000Q can enable 48 user, 48 AP antenna BPSK communication at 20 dB SNR with a bit error rate of 10^(-6) and a 1,500 byte frame error rate of 10^(-4).« less