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  1. Abstract

    Despite the proven benefits of natural ventilation (NV) as an effective low-carbon solution to meet growing cooling demand, its effectiveness can be constrained by poor outdoor air quality. Here, we propose a modeling approach that integrates highly granular air pollution data with a coupled EnergyPlus and differential equation airflow model to evaluate how NV potential for space cooling changes when accounting for air pollution exposure (PM2.5). Given the high vulnerability of low-income populations to air pollution and the dearth of energy and thermal comfort research on informal settlements, we applied our model to a typical informal settlement residence in two large Indian cities: New Delhi and Bangalore. Our results indicate that outdoor PM2.5 levels have a significant impact on NV potential especially in highly polluted cities like New Delhi. However, we found that low-cost filtration (MERV 14) increased the NV potential by 25% and protected occupants from harmful exposure to PM2.5 with a minor energy penalty of 6%. We further find that adoption of low-cost filtration is a viable low-carbon solution pathway as it provides both thermal comfort and exposure protection at 65% less energy intensity—energy intensity reduced to 60 kWh m−2from 173.5 kWh m−2in case of adoption of potentially unaffordable full mechanical air conditioning. Our work highlights ample opportunities for reducing both air pollution and energy consumption in informal settlements across major Indian cities. Finally, our work can guide building designers and policymakers to reform building codes for adopting low-cost air filtration coupled with NV and subsequently reduce energy demand and associated environmental emissions.

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  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2024
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    Impact Statement The structure of social and organizational relationships in commercial building workplaces is a key component of work processes. Understanding this structure—typically described as a network of relational ties—can help designers of workspaces and managers of workplaces make decisions that promote the success of organizations. These networks are complex, and as a result, our traditional means of measuring them are time and cost intensive. In this paper, we present a novel method, the Interaction Model, for learning these network structures automatically through sensing data. When we compare the learned network to network data obtained through a survey, we find statistically significant correlation, demonstrating the success of our method. Two key strengths of our proposed method are, first, that it uncovers network patterns quickly, requiring just 10 weeks of data, and, second, that it is interpretable, relying on intuitive opportunities for social interaction. Data-driven inference of the structure of human systems within our built environment will enable the design and operation of engineered built spaces that promote our human-centered objectives. 
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