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  1. This paper presents a semi-supervised learning framework for a customized semantic segmentation task using multiview image streams. A key challenge of the customized task lies in the limited accessibility of the labeled data due to the requirement of prohibitive manual annotation effort. We hypothesize that it is possible to leverage multiview image streams that are linked through the underlying 3D geometry, which can provide an additional supervisionary signal to train a segmentation model. We formulate a new cross-supervision method using a shape belief transfer---the segmentation belief in one image is used to predict that of the other image through epipolar geometry analogous to shape-from-silhouette. The shape belief transfer provides the upper and lower bounds of the segmentation for the unlabeled data where its gap approaches asymptotically to zero as the number of the labeled views increases. We integrate this theory to design a novel network that is agnostic to camera calibration, network model, and semantic category and bypasses the intermediate process of suboptimal 3D reconstruction. We validate this network by recognizing a customized semantic category per pixel from realworld visual data including non-human species and a subject of interest in social videos where attaining large-scale annotation data is infeasible.
  2. This paper presents a semi-supervised learning framework to train a keypoint detector using multiview image streams given the limited number of labeled instances (typically <4%). We leverage three self-supervisionary signals in multiview tracking to utilize the unlabeled data: (1) a keypoint in one view can be supervised by other views via epipolar geometry; (2) a keypoint detection must be consistent across time; (3) a visible keypoint in one view is likely to be visible in the adjacent view. We design a new end-toend network that can propagate these self-supervisionary signals across the unlabeled data from the labeled data in a differentiable manner. We show that our approach outperforms existing detectors including DeepLabCut tailored to the keypoint detection of non-human species such as monkeys, dogs, and mice.
  3. This paper presents MONET -- an end-to-end semi-supervised learning framework for a keypoint detector using multiview image streams. In particular, we consider general subjects such as non-human species where attaining a large scale annotated dataset is challenging. While multiview geometry can be used to self-supervise the unlabeled data, integrating the geometry into learning a keypoint detector is challenging due to representation mismatch. We address this mismatch by formulating a new differentiable representation of the epipolar constraint called epipolar divergence---a generalized distance from the epipolar lines to the corresponding keypoint distribution. Epipolar divergence characterizes when two view keypoint distributions produce zero reprojection error. We design a twin network that minimizes the epipolar divergence through stereo rectification that can significantly alleviate computational complexity and sampling aliasing in training. We demonstrate that our framework can localize customized keypoints of diverse species, e.g., humans, dogs, and monkeys.