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  1. Abstract

    The interaction of graphene with water molecules under an applied electric field is not thoroughly understood, yet this interaction is important to many thermal, fluidic, and electrical applications of graphene. In this work, the effect of electrical doping of graphene on water adsorption is studied through adsorption isotherms and current–voltage (IV) characterizations as a function of the Fermi level. The water adsorption onto graphene increases by ≈15% and the doping levels increase by a factor of three with a gate‐to‐graphene voltage of +20 or −20 V compared to 0 V for sub‐monolayer adsorption. This change in uptake is attributed to the increase in density of state of graphene upon electrical‐doping, which changes the Coulombic and van der Waals interactions. The water adsorption onto graphene is either n‐ or p‐doping depending on the applied gate‐to‐graphene voltage. The ambi‐doping nature of water onto graphene is due to the polar nature of water molecules, so the doping depends on the orientation of the water molecules.

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  2. Inorganic salt hydrates are promising phase-change materials (PCMs) for thermal energy storage due to their high latent heat of fusion. However, their practical application is often limited by their unstable form, dehydration, large supercooling, and low thermal conductivity. Porous melamine foam and its carbonized derivatives are potential supporting porous materials to encapsulate inorganic salt hydrate PCMs to address these problems. This work investigates the effect of pyrolysis temperature on the morphology and structure of the carbonized foams and their thermal energy storage performance. Pyrolysis of melamine foam at 700−900 °C leads to the formation of crystalline sodium cyanate and sodium carbonate particles on the foam skeleton surface, which allows the spontaneous impregnation of the carbon foam with molten CaCl2·6H2O.The form-stable foam-CaCl2·6H2O composite effectively suppresses supercooling and dehydration, demonstrating the efficacy of carbon foam as a promising supporting material for inorganic salt hydrate PCMs. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 26, 2024
  3. The electronics packaging community strongly believes that Moore’s law will continue for another few years due to recent technological efforts to build heterogeneously integrated packages. Heterogeneous integration (HI) can be at the chip level (a single chip with multiple hotspots), in multi-chip modules, or in vertically stacked three-dimensional (3D) integrated circuits. Flux values have increased exponentially with a simultaneous reduction in chip size and a significant increase in performance, leading to increased heat dissipation. The electronics industry and the academic research community have examined various solutions to tackle skyrocketing thermal-management challenges. Embedded cooling eliminates most sequential conduction resistance from the chip to the ambient, unlike separable cold plates/ heat sinks. Although embedding the cooling solution onto an electronic chip results in a high heat transfer potential, technological risks and complexity are still associated with the implementation of these technologies and with uncertainty regarding which technologies will be adopted. This manuscript discusses recent advances in embedded cooling, fluid selection considerations, and conventional, immersion, and additive manufacturing-based embedded cooling technologies. 
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  4. Purpose AlSi10Mg alloy is commonly used in laser powder bed fusion due to its printability, relatively high thermal conductivity, low density and good mechanical properties. However, the thermal conductivity of as-built materials as a function of processing (energy density, laser power, laser scanning speed, support structure) and build orientation, are not well explored in the literature. This study aims to elucidate the relationship between processing, microstructure, and thermal conductivity. Design/methodology/approach The thermal conductivity of laser powder bed fusion (L-PBF) AlSi10Mg samples are investigated by the flash diffusivity and frequency domain thermoreflectance (FDTR) techniques. Thermal conductivities are linked to the microstructure of L-PBF AlSi10Mg, which changes with processing conditions. The through-plane exceeded the in-plane thermal conductivity for all energy densities. A co-located thermal conductivity map by frequency domain thermoreflectance (FDTR) and crystallographic grain orientation map by electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) was used to investigate the effect of microstructure on thermal conductivity. Findings The highest through-plane thermal conductivity (136 ± 2 W/m-K) was achieved at 59 J/mm 3 and exceeded the values reported previously. The in-plane thermal conductivity peaked at 117 ± 2 W/m-K at 50 J/mm 3 . The trend of thermal conductivity reducing with energy density at similar porosity was primarily due to the reduced grain size producing more Al-Si interfaces that pose thermal resistance. At these interfaces, thermal energy must convert from electrons in the aluminum to phonons in the silicon. The co-located thermal conductivity and crystallographic grain orientation maps confirmed that larger colonies of columnar grains have higher thermal conductivity compared to smaller columnar grains. Practical implications The thermal properties of AlSi10Mg are crucial to heat transfer applications including additively manufactured heatsinks, cold plates, vapor chambers, heat pipes, enclosures and heat exchangers. Additionally, thermal-based nondestructive testing methods require these properties for applications such as defect detection and simulation of L-PBF processes. Industrial standards for L-PBF processes and components can use the data for thermal applications. Originality/value To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this paper is the first to make coupled thermal conductivity maps that were matched to microstructure for L-PBF AlSi10Mg aluminum alloy. This was achieved by a unique in-house thermal conductivity mapping setup and relating the data to local SEM EBSD maps. This provides the first conclusive proof that larger grain sizes can achieve higher thermal conductivity for this processing method and material system. This study also shows that control of the solidification can result in higher thermal conductivity. It was also the first to find that the build substrate (with or without support) has a large effect on thermal conductivity. 
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  5. Cu3Sn, a well-known intermetallic compound with a high melting temperature and thermal stability, has found numerous applications in microelectronics, 3D printing, and catalysis. However, the relationship between the material's thermal conductivity anisotropy and its complex anti-phase boundary superstructure is not well understood. Here, frequency domain thermoreflectance was used to map the thermal conductivity variation across the surface of arc-melted polycrystalline Cu3Sn. Complementary electron backscatter diffraction and transmission electron microscopy revealed the thermal conductivity in the principal a, b, and c orientations to be 57.6, 58.9, and 67.2 W/m-K, respectively. Density functional theory calculations for several Cu3Sn superstructures helped examine thermodynamic stability factors and evaluate the direction-resolved electron transport properties in the relaxation time approximation. The analysis of computed temperature- and composition-dependent free energies suggests metastability of the known long-period Cu3Sn superstructures while the transport calculations indicate a small directional variation in the thermal conductivity. The ∼15% anisotropy measured and computed in this study is well below previously reported experimental values for samples grown by liquid-phase electroepitaxy. 
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  6. We previously demonstrated how the Sn3Ag4Ti alloy can robustly bond onto silicon via selective laser melting (SLM). By employing this technology, thermal management devices (e.g., micro-channels, vapor chamber evaporators, heat pipes) can be directly printed onto the electronic package (silicon die) without using thermal interface materials. Under immersion two-phase cooling (pool boiling), we compare the performance of three chip cooling methods (conventional heat sink, bare silicon die and additively manufactured metal micro-fins) under high heat flux conditions (100 W/cm2 ). Heat transfer simulations show a significant reduction in the chip temperature for the silicon micro-fins. Reduction of the chip operating temperature or increase in clock speed are some of the advantages of this technology, which results from the elimination of thermal interface materials in the electronic package. Performance and reliability aspects of this technology are discussed through experiments and computational models. 
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