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  1. Abstract

    Topology is central to phenomena that arise in a variety of fields, ranging from quantum field theory to quantum information science to condensed matter physics. Recently, the study of topology has been extended to open systems, leading to a plethora of intriguing effects such as topological lasing, exceptional surfaces, as well as non-Hermitian bulk-boundary correspondence. Here, we show that Bloch eigenstates associated with lattices with dissipatively coupled elements exhibit geometric properties that cannot be described via scalar Berry phases, in sharp contrast to conservative Hamiltonians with non-degenerate energy levels. This unusual behavior can be attributed to the significant population exchanges among the corresponding dissipation bands of such lattices. Using a one-dimensional example, we show both theoretically and experimentally that such population exchanges can manifest themselves via matrix-valued operators in the corresponding Bloch dynamics. In two-dimensional lattices, such matrix-valued operators can form non-commuting pairs and lead to non-Abelian dynamics, as confirmed by our numerical simulations. Our results point to new ways in which the combined effect of topology and engineered dissipation can lead to non-Abelian topological phenomena.

  2. Abstract

    Dual-comb spectroscopy has been proven beneficial in molecular characterization but remains challenging in the mid-infrared region due to difficulties in sources and efficient photodetection. Here we introduce cross-comb spectroscopy, in which a mid-infrared comb is upconverted via sum-frequency generation with a near-infrared comb of a shifted repetition rate and then interfered with a spectral extension of the near-infrared comb. We measure CO2absorption around 4.25 µm with a 1-µm photodetector, exhibiting a 233-cm−1instantaneous bandwidth, 28000 comb lines, a single-shot signal-to-noise ratio of 167 and a figure of merit of 2.4 × 106Hz1/2. We show that cross-comb spectroscopy can have superior signal-to-noise ratio, sensitivity, dynamic range, and detection efficiency compared to other dual-comb-based methods and mitigate the limits of the excitation background and detector saturation. This approach offers an adaptable and powerful spectroscopic method outside the well-developed near-IR region and opens new avenues to high-performance frequency-comb-based sensing with wavelength flexibility.

  3. Abstract

    Driven nonlinear resonators provide a fertile ground for phenomena related to phase transitions far from equilibrium, which can open opportunities unattainable in their linear counterparts. Here, we show that optical parametric oscillators (OPOs) can undergo second-order phase transitions in the spectral domain between degenerate and non-degenerate regimes. This abrupt change in the spectral response follows a square-root dependence around the critical point, exhibiting high sensitivity to parameter variation akin to systems around an exceptional point. We experimentally demonstrate such a phase transition in a quadratic OPO. We show that the divergent susceptibility of the critical point is accompanied by spontaneous symmetry breaking and distinct phase noise properties in the two regimes, indicating the importance of a beyond nonlinear bifurcation interpretation. We also predict the occurrence of first-order spectral phase transitions in coupled OPOs. Our results on non-equilibrium spectral behaviors can be utilized for enhanced sensing, advanced computing, and quantum information processing.

  4. Abstract Cellular automata are a class of computational models based on simple rules and algorithms that can simulate a wide range of complex phenomena. However, when using conventional computers, these ‘simple’ rules are only encapsulated at the level of software. This can be taken one step further by simplifying the underlying physical hardware. Here, we propose and implement a simple photonic hardware platform for simulating complex phenomena based on cellular automata. Using this special-purpose computer, we experimentally demonstrate complex phenomena, including fractals, chaos, and solitons, which are typically associated with much more complex physical systems. The flexibility and programmability of our photonic computer present new opportunities to simulate and harness complexity for efficient, robust, and decentralized information processing using light.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2024
  5. Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2024
  6. Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 19, 2024
  7. Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 1, 2023
  8. A lithium niobate–based platform can generate and measure squeezed states of light on a chip.
  9. We demonstrate broadly-tunable synchronously-pumped optical parametric oscillators in nanophotonic lithium niobate. A picosecond 1-µm pump generates subpicosecond signal/idler frequency combs tunable between 1.5 and 3.3µm with up-conversion to the visible on the same chip.