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  1. Abstract

    This study relies on an experimental approach, utilising real data from multiple photovoltaic (PV) sites located in the US Northeaster region, to inspect how different inverter reactive and active power settings impact gird voltage regulation and inverter life expectancy. These voltage regulation schemes come at a cost for the operator. Data from different solar sites with inverters running at different reactive and active power settings were analysed to compare operational trade‐offs. These trade‐offs range from production losses to shortening the lifetime of the inverters. Voltage versus reactive power plots were analysed to show production losses, while the thermal analysis was used to correlate with the inverter life expectancy.

     
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2024
  2. Abstract

    The mass deployment of distributed energy resources (DERs) to achieve clean energy objectives has become a major goal across several states in the U.S. However, the viability and reality of achieving these goals in dense urban areas, such as New York City, are challenged by several ‘Techno‐Economic’ barriers associated with available land space and the number of AC/direct current (DC) conversion stages that requires multiple electrical balance of plant (BOP) equipment for pairing/interconnecting these resources to the grid. The fundamental issue of interconnection is addressed by assessing the use of a common DC bus in a one‐of‐a‐kind configuration (to pair grid‐connected energy storage, photovoltaic, and electric vehicle chargers (EVC) systems) and reduce the number of BOP equipment needed for deployment. Building on similar work that has touched on distribution‐level DC interconnection, this paper will also address the intricacies of interconnecting third‐party and Utility DERs to a DC‐based point of common coupling. It will examine the requisite site controller configuration (control architecture) and requirements to coordinate the energy storage system's use between managing Utility and Third‐Party EVC demand while prioritising dispatch. The result shows that the DC‐coupled system is technologically feasible and hierarchical control architecture is recommended to maintain stability during various use cases proposed. This will inform a lab demonstration of this system that aims to test DC integration of the DERs with recommendations for the microgrid (MG) controllers and reduction in the BOP equipment. These learnings will then be applied to practical grid‐scale deployment of the systems at Con Edison's Cedar Street Substation. This system, if proven successful, has the potential to change the way community distributed generation and MGs are interconnected to the Utility System.

     
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  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2025
  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2024
  5. This article investigates the feasibility of using regenerative energy from braking trains to charge electric buses in the context of New York City’s (NYC) subway and electric bus networks. A case study centered around NYC’s system has been performed to evaluate the benefits and challenges pertaining to the use of the preexisting subway network as a power supply for its new all-electric buses. The analysis shows that charging electric buses via the subway system during subway off-peak periods does not hinder regular train operation. In addition, having the charging electric buses connected to the third rail allows for more regenerative braking energy (RBE) to be recuperated, decreasing the energy wasted throughout the system. It was also found that including a wayside energy storage system (WESS) reduces the overall substation peak power consumption.

     
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2024
  6. The mass deployment of energy storage and distributed energy resources has become a major goal across several states in the United States. However, the viability and reality of such a goal in New York City has been put in question as possible financial burdens and execution risks are still unclear, while policies and regulations are still not fully settled. This paper provides a foundational overview of the Lazard LCOS study with emphasis on forward states which have successfully implemented mass deployment of energy storage technologies. “Adders” are related to the practicality in deploying these systems in a highly regulated and densely populated urban area such as New York City. It also discusses details on the typical financial structure/incentives that support the policies and regulations that allow for achieving these clean energy goals. Furthermore, many states have begun to focus on alternative battery technologies rather than just Li-ion, and as such, New York State is following suit. Utilizing several similar works that have begun to touch on these considerations individually and various accredited resources, this paper discusses “adders” for New York City (and New York State as a whole) as they develop similar approaches that are unique to them and offers helpful conclusions and recommendations to achieve their deployment goals. 
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  7. New York City’s food distribution system is among the largest in the United States. Food is transported by trucks from twelve major distribution centers to the city’s point-of-sale locations. Trucks consume large amounts of energy and contribute to large amounts of greenhouse gas emissions. Therefore, there is interest to increase the efficiency of New York City’s food distribution system. The Gowanus district in New York City is undergoing rezoning from an industrial zone to a mix residential and industrial zone. It serves as a living lab to test new initiatives, policies, and new infrastructure for electric vehicles. We analyze the impact of electrification of food-distribution trucks on greenhouse gas emissions and electricity demand in this paper. However, such analysis faces the challenges of accessing available and granular data, modeling of demands and deliveries that incorporate logistics and inventory management of different types of food retail stores, delivery route selection, and delivery schedule to optimize food distribution. We propose a framework to estimate truck routes for food delivery at a district level. We model the schedule of food delivery from a distribution center to retail stores as a vehicle routing problem using an optimization solver. Our case study shows that diesel trucks consume 300% more energy than electric trucks and generate 40% more greenhouse gases than diesel trucks for food distribution in the Gowanus district. 
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  8. null (Ed.)