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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 18, 2023
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 1, 2023
  3. Physics-informed machine learning is emerging through vast methodologies and in various applications. This paper discovers physics-based custom loss functions as an implementable solution to additive manufacturing (AM). Specifically, laser metal deposition (LMD) is an AM process where a laser beam melts deposited powder, and the dissolved particles fuse to produce metal components. Porosity, or small cavities that form in this printed structure, is generally considered one of the most destructive defects in metal AM. Traditionally, computer tomography scans measure porosity. While this is useful for understanding the nature of pore formation and its characteristics, purely physics-driven models lack real-time prediction ability. Meanwhile, a purely deep learning approach to porosity prediction leaves valuable physics knowledge behind. In this paper, a hybrid model that uses both empirical and simulated LMD data is created to show how various physics-informed loss functions impact the accuracy, precision, and recall of a baseline deep learning model for porosity prediction. In particular, some versions of the physics-informed model can improve the precision of the baseline deep learning-only model (albeit at the expense of overall accuracy).
  4. Ahn, Hee-Kap ; Sadakane, Kunihiko (Ed.)
    A version of time-bounded Kolmogorov complexity, denoted KT, has received attention in the past several years, due to its close connection to circuit complexity and to the Minimum Circuit Size Problem MCSP. Essentially all results about the complexity of MCSP hold also for MKTP (the problem of computing the KT complexity of a string). Both MKTP and MCSP are hard for SZK (Statistical Zero Knowledge) under BPP-Turing reductions; neither is known to be NP-complete. Recently, some hardness results for MKTP were proved that are not (yet) known to hold for MCSP. In particular, MKTP is hard for DET (a subclass of P) under nonuniform ≤^{NC^0}_m reductions. In this paper, we improve this, to show that the complement of MKTP is hard for the (apparently larger) class NISZK_L under not only ≤^{NC^0}_m reductions but even under projections. Also, the complement of MKTP is hard for NISZK under ≤^{P/poly}_m reductions. Here, NISZK is the class of problems with non-interactive zero-knowledge proofs, and NISZK_L is the non-interactive version of the class SZK_L that was studied by Dvir et al. As an application, we provide several improved worst-case to average-case reductions to problems in NP, and we obtain a new lower bound on MKTPmore »(which is currently not known to hold for MCSP).« less
  5. Abstract Laser-based additive manufacturing (LBAM) provides unrivalled design freedom with the ability to manufacture complicated parts for a wide range of engineering applications. Melt pool is one of the most important signatures in LBAM and is indicative of process anomalies and part defects. High-speed thermal images of the melt pool captured during LBAM make it possible for in situ melt pool monitoring and porosity prediction. This paper aims to broaden current knowledge of the underlying relationship between process and porosity in LBAM and provide new possibilities for efficient and accurate porosity prediction. We present a deep learning-based data fusion method to predict porosity in LBAM parts by leveraging the measured melt pool thermal history and two newly created deep learning neural networks. A PyroNet, based on Convolutional Neural Networks, is developed to correlate in-process pyrometry images with layer-wise porosity; an IRNet, based on Long-term Recurrent Convolutional Networks, is developed to correlate sequential thermal images from an infrared camera with layer-wise porosity. Predictions from PyroNet and IRNet are fused at the decision-level to obtain a more accurate prediction of layer-wise porosity. The model fidelity is validated with LBAM Ti–6Al–4V thin-wall structure. This is the first work that manages to fuse pyrometermore »data and infrared camera data for metal additive manufacturing (AM). The case study results based on benchmark datasets show that our method can achieve high accuracy with relatively high efficiency, demonstrating the applicability of the method for in situ porosity detection in LBAM.« less