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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2023
  2. Fujiwara, Masatomo ; Manney, Gloria L. ; Gray, Lesley J. ; Wright, Jonathon S. (Ed.)
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 31, 2023
  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 16, 2022
  4. Abstract Rare events arising in nonlinear atmospheric dynamics remain hard to predict and attribute. We address the problem of forecasting rare events in a prototypical example, sudden stratospheric warmings (SSWs). Approximately once every other winter, the boreal stratospheric polar vortex rapidly breaks down, shifting midlatitude surface weather patterns for months. We focus on two key quantities of interest: the probability of an SSW occurring, and the expected lead time if it does occur, as functions of initial condition. These optimal forecasts concretely measure the event’s progress. Direct numerical simulation can estimate them in principle but is prohibitively expensive in practice:more »each rare event requires a long integration to observe, and the cost of each integration grows with model complexity. We describe an alternative approach using integrations that are short compared to the time scale of the warming event. We compute the probability and lead time efficiently by solving equations involving the transition operator, which encodes all information about the dynamics. We relate these optimal forecasts to a small number of interpretable physical variables, suggesting optimal measurements for forecasting. We illustrate the methodology on a prototype SSW model developed by Holton and Mass and modified by stochastic forcing. While highly idealized, this model captures the essential nonlinear dynamics of SSWs and exhibits the key forecasting challenge: the dramatic separation in time scales between a single event and the return time between successive events. Our methodology is designed to fully exploit high-dimensional data from models and observations, and has the potential to identify detailed predictors of many complex rare events in meteorology.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 1, 2022
  5. null (Ed.)
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2022
  6. Abstract Accurate representation of stratospheric trace gas transport is important for ozone modeling and climate projection. Intermodel spread can arise from differences in the representation of transport by the diabatic (overturning) circulation vs. comparatively faster adiabatic mixing by breaking waves, or through numerical errors, primarily diffusion. This study investigates the impact of these processes on transport using an idealised tracer, the age-of-air. Transport is assessed in two state-of-the-art dynamical cores based on fundamentally different numerical formulations: finite volume and spectral element. Integrating the models in free-running and nudged tropical wind configurations reveals the crucial impact of tropical dynamics on stratosphericmore »transport. Using age-budget theory, vertical and horizontal gradients of age allow comparison of the roles of the diabatic circulation, adiabatic mixing, and the numerical diffusive flux. Their respective contribution is quantified by connecting the full 3-d model to the tropical leaky pipe framework of Neu and Plumb (1999). Transport by the two cores varies significantly in the free-running integrations, with the age in the middle stratosphere differing by about 2 years primarily due to differences in adiabatic mixing. When winds in the tropics are constrained, the difference in age drops to about 0.5 years; in this configuration, more than half the difference is due to the representation of the diabatic circulation. Numerical diffusion is very sensitive to the resolution of the core, but does not play a significant role in differences between the cores when they are run at comparable resolution. It is concluded that fundamental differences rooted in dynamical core formulation can account for a substantial fraction of transport bias between climate models.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 7, 2022
  7. Abstract. This study quantifies differences among four widely usedatmospheric reanalysis datasets (ERA5, JRA-55, MERRA-2, and CFSR) in theirrepresentation of the dynamical changes induced by springtime polarstratospheric ozone depletion in the Southern Hemisphere from 1980 to 2001.The intercomparison is undertaken as part of the SPARC(Stratosphere–troposphere Processes and their Role in Climate) ReanalysisIntercomparison Project (S-RIP). The reanalyses are generally in goodagreement in their representation of the strengthening of the lowerstratospheric polar vortex during the austral spring–summer season,associated with reduced radiative heating due to ozone loss, as well as thedescent of anomalously strong westerly winds into the troposphere duringsummer and the subsequent polewardmore »displacement and intensification of thepolar front jet. Differences in the trends in zonal wind between thereanalyses are generally small compared to the mean trends. The exception isCFSR, which exhibits greater disagreement compared to the other threereanalysis datasets, with stronger westerly winds in the lower stratospherein spring and a larger poleward displacement of the tropospheric westerlyjet in summer. The dynamical changes associated with the ozone hole are examined byinvestigating the momentum budget and then the eddy heat and momentumfluxes in terms of planetary- and synoptic-scale Rossby wave contributions.The dynamical changes are consistently represented across the reanalysesand support our dynamical understanding of the response of the coupledstratosphere–troposphere system to the ozone hole. Although our resultssuggest a high degree of consistency across the four reanalysis datasets inthe representation of these dynamical changes, there are larger differencesin the wave forcing, residual circulation, and eddy propagation changes compared to the zonal wind trends. In particular, there is a noticeabledisparity in these trends in CFSR compared to the other three reanalyses,while the best agreement is found between ERA5 and JRA-55. Greateruncertainty in the components of the momentum budget, as opposed to meancirculation, suggests that the zonal wind is better constrained by theassimilation of observations compared to the wave forcing, residualcirculation, and eddy momentum and heat fluxes, which are more dependent onthe model-based forecasts that can differ between reanalyses. Lookingforward, however, these findings give us confidence that reanalysis datasetscan be used to assess changes associated with the ongoing recovery ofstratospheric ozone.« less
  8. Abstract Climate models in phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) vary significantly in their ability to simulate the phase and amplitude of atmospheric stationary waves in the midlatitude Southern Hemisphere. These models also suffer from a double intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ), with excessive precipitation in the tropical eastern South Pacific, and many also suffer from a biased simulation of the dynamics of the Agulhas Current around the tip of South Africa. The intermodel spread in the strength and phasing of SH midlatitude stationary waves in the CMIP archive is shown to be significantly correlated with the double-ITCZmore »bias and biases in the Agulhas Return Current. An idealized general circulation model (GCM) is used to demonstrate the causality of these links by prescribing an oceanic heat flux out of the tropical east Pacific and near the Agulhas Current. A warm bias in tropical east Pacific SSTs associated with an erroneous double ITCZ leads to a biased representation of midlatitude stationary waves in the austral hemisphere, capturing the response evident in CMIP models. Similarly, an overly diffuse sea surface temperature gradient associated with a weak Agulhas Return Current leads to an equatorward shift of the Southern Hemisphere jet by more than 3° and weak stationary wave activity in the austral hemisphere. Hence, rectification of the double-ITCZ bias and a better representation of the Agulhas Current should be expected to lead to an improved model representation of the austral hemisphere.« less