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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2023
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2023
  3. ABSTRACT We develop a novel data-driven method for generating synthetic optical observations of galaxy clusters. In cluster weak lensing, the interplay between analysis choices and systematic effects related to source galaxy selection, shape measurement, and photometric redshift estimation can be best characterized in end-to-end tests going from mock observations to recovered cluster masses. To create such test scenarios, we measure and model the photometric properties of galaxy clusters and their sky environments from the Dark Energy Survey Year 3 (DES Y3) data in two bins of cluster richness $\lambda \in [30; 45)$, $\lambda \in [45; 60)$ and three bins in cluster redshift ($z\in [0.3; 0.35)$, $z\in [0.45; 0.5)$ and $z\in [0.6; 0.65)$. Using deep-field imaging data, we extrapolate galaxy populations beyond the limiting magnitude of DES Y3 and calculate the properties of cluster member galaxies via statistical background subtraction. We construct mock galaxy clusters as random draws from a distribution function, and render mock clusters and line-of-sight catalogues into synthetic images in the same format as actual survey observations. Synthetic galaxy clusters are generated from real observational data, and thus are independent from the assumptions inherent to cosmological simulations. The recipe can be straightforwardly modified to incorporate extra information, andmore »correct for survey incompleteness. New realizations of synthetic clusters can be created at minimal cost, which will allow future analyses to generate the large number of images needed to characterize systematic uncertainties in cluster mass measurements.« less
  4. ABSTRACT Galaxy–galaxy lensing is a powerful probe of the connection between galaxies and their host dark matter haloes, which is important both for galaxy evolution and cosmology. We extend the measurement and modelling of the galaxy–galaxy lensing signal in the recent Dark Energy Survey Year 3 cosmology analysis to the highly non-linear scales (∼100 kpc). This extension enables us to study the galaxy–halo connection via a Halo Occupation Distribution (HOD) framework for the two lens samples used in the cosmology analysis: a luminous red galaxy sample (redmagic) and a magnitude-limited galaxy sample (maglim). We find that redmagic (maglim) galaxies typically live in dark matter haloes of mass log10(Mh/M⊙) ≈ 13.7 which is roughly constant over redshift (13.3−13.5 depending on redshift). We constrain these masses to ${\sim}15{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$, approximately 1.5 times improvement over the previous work. We also constrain the linear galaxy bias more than five times better than what is inferred by the cosmological scales only. We find the satellite fraction for redmagic (maglim) to be ∼0.1−0.2 (0.1−0.3) with no clear trend in redshift. Our constraints on these halo properties are broadly consistent with other available estimates from previous work, large-scale constraints, and simulations. The framework built in this paper willmore »be used for future HOD studies with other galaxy samples and extensions for cosmological analyses.« less
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    ABSTRACT In this work, we expand and test the capabilities of our recently developed superresolution (SR) model to generate high-resolution (HR) realizations of the full phase-space matter distribution, including both displacement and velocity, from computationally cheap low-resolution (LR) cosmological N-body simulations. The SR model enhances the simulation resolution by generating 512 times more tracer particles, extending into the deeply nonlinear regime where complex structure formation processes take place. We validate the SR model by deploying the model in 10 test simulations of box size 100 h−1 Mpc, and examine the matter power spectra, bispectra, and two-dimensional power spectra in redshift space. We find the generated SR field matches the true HR result at per cent level down to scales of k ∼ 10 h  Mpc−1. We also identify and inspect dark matter haloes and their substructures. Our SR model generates visually authentic small-scale structures that cannot be resolved by the LR input, and are in good statistical agreement with the real HR results. The SR model performs satisfactorily on the halo occupation distribution, halo correlations in both real and redshift space, and the pairwise velocity distribution, matching the HR results with comparable scatter, thus demonstrating its potential in making mock halo catalogues. The SR technique can be amore »powerful and promising tool for modelling small-scale galaxy formation physics in large cosmological volumes.« less
  6. ABSTRACT We explore the use of Deep Learning to infer physical quantities from the observable transmitted flux in the Ly α forest. We train a Neural Network using redshift z = 3 outputs from cosmological hydrodynamic simulations and mock data sets constructed from them. We evaluate how well the trained network is able to reconstruct the optical depth for Ly α forest absorption from noisy and often saturated transmitted flux data. The Neural Network outperforms an alternative reconstruction method involving log inversion and spline interpolation by approximately a factor of 2 in the optical depth root mean square error. We find no significant dependence in the improvement on input data signal to noise, although the gain is greatest in high optical depth regions. The Ly α forest optical depth studied here serves as a simple, one dimensional, example but the use of Deep Learning and simulations to approach the inverse problem in cosmology could be extended to other physical quantities and higher dimensional data.
  7. Cosmological simulations of galaxy formation are limited by finite computational resources. We draw from the ongoing rapid advances in artificial intelligence (AI; specifically deep learning) to address this problem. Neural networks have been developed to learn from high-resolution (HR) image data and then make accurate superresolution (SR) versions of different low-resolution (LR) images. We apply such techniques to LR cosmological N-body simulations, generating SR versions. Specifically, we are able to enhance the simulation resolution by generating 512 times more particles and predicting their displacements from the initial positions. Therefore, our results can be viewed as simulation realizations themselves, rather than projections, e.g., to their density fields. Furthermore, the generation process is stochastic, enabling us to sample the small-scale modes conditioning on the large-scale environment. Our model learns from only 16 pairs of small-volume LR-HR simulations and is then able to generate SR simulations that successfully reproduce the HR matter power spectrum to percent level up to16h1Mpcand the HR halo mass function to within10%down to1011M. We successfully deploy the model in a box 1,000 times larger than the training simulation box, showing that high-resolution mock surveys can be generated rapidly. We conclude that AI assistance has themore »potential to revolutionize modeling of small-scale galaxy-formation physics in large cosmological volumes.

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  8. ABSTRACT In this work, we explore the application of intensity mapping to detect extended Ly α emission from the IGM via cross-correlation of PAUS images with Ly α forest data from eBOSS and DESI. Seven narrow-band (FWHM = 13 nm) PAUS filters have been considered, ranging from 455 to 515 nm in steps of 10 nm, which allows the observation of Ly α emission in a range 2.7 < z < 3.3. The cross-correlation is simulated first in an area of 100 deg2 (PAUS projected coverage), and second in two hypothetical scenarios: a deeper PAUS (complete up to iAB < 24 instead of iAB < 23, observation time ×6), and an extended PAUS coverage of 225 deg2 (observation time ×2.25). A hydrodynamic simulation of size 400 Mpc h−1 is used to simulate both extended Ly α emission and absorption, while the foregrounds in PAUS images have been simulated using a lightcone mock catalogue. Using an optimistic estimation of uncorrelated PAUS noise, the total probability of a non-spurious detection is estimated to be 1.8 per cent and 4.5 per cent for PAUS-eBOSS and PAUS-DESI, from a run of 1000 simulated cross-correlations with different realisations of instrumental noise and quasar positions. The hypothetical PAUS scenarios increase this probability to 15.3 per cent (deeper PAUS) and 9.0 per cent (extendedmore »PAUS). With realistic correlated noise directly measured from PAUS images, these probabilities become negligible. Despite these negative results, some evidences suggest that this methodology may be more suitable to broad-band surveys.« less