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  1. UAVs need to communicate along three dimensions (3D) with other aerial vehicles, ranging from above to below, and often need to connect to ground stations. However, wireless transmission in 3D space significantly dissipates power, often hindering the range required for these types of links. Directional transmission is one way to efficiently use available wireless channels to achieve the desired range. While multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems can digitally steer the beam through channel matrix manipulation without needing directional awareness, the power resources required for operating multiple radios on a UAV are often logistically challenging. An alternative approach to streamline resources is the use of phased arrays to achieve directionality in the analog domain, but this requires beam sweeping and results in search-time delay. The complexity and search time can increase with the dynamic mobility pattern of the UAVs in aerial networks. However, if the direction of the receiver is known at the transmitter, the search time can be significantly reduced. In this work, multi-antenna channels between two UAVs in A2A links are analyzed, and based on these findings, an efficient machine learning-based method for estimating the direction of a transmitting node using channel estimates of 4 antennas (2 × 2 MIMO) is proposed. The performance of the proposed method is validated and verified through in-field drone-to-drone measurements. Findings indicate that the proposed method can estimate the direction of the transmitter in the A2A link with 86% accuracy. Further, the proposed direction estimation method is deployable for UAV-based massive MIMO systems to select the directional beam without the need to sweep or search for optimal communication performance. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2024
  2. In this paper, we propose a multi-band medium access control (MAC) protocol for an infrastructure-based network with an access point (AP) that supports In-Band full-duplex (IBFD) and multiuser transmission to multi-band-enabled stations. The Multi-Band Full Duplex MAC (MB-FDMAC) protocol mainly uses the sub-6 GHz band for control-frame exchange, transmitted at the lowest rate per IEEE 802.11 standards, and uses the 60 GHz band, which has significantly higher instantaneous bandwidth, exclusively for data-frame exchange. We also propose a selection method that ensures fairness among uplink and downlink stations. Our result shows that MB-FDMAC effectively improves the spectral efficiency in the mmWave band by 324%, 234%, and 189% compared with state-of-the-art MAC protocols. In addition, MB-FDMAC significantly outperforms the combined throughput of sub-6 GHz and 60 GHz IBFD multiuser MIMO networks that operate independently by more than 85%. In addition, we study multiple network variables such as the number of stations in the network, the percentage of mmWave band stations, the size of the contention stage, and the selection method on MB-FDMAC by evaluating the change in the throughput, packet delay, and fairness among stations. Finally, we propose a method to improve the utilization of the high bandwidth of the mmWave band by incorporating time duplexing into MB-FDMAC, which we show can enhance the fairness by 12.5%and significantly reduces packet delay by 80%. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 1, 2024
  3. In this paper, we study an unmanned-aerial-vehicle (UAV) based full-duplex (FD) multi-user communication network, where a UAV is deployed as a multiple-input–multiple-output (MIMO) FD base station (BS) to serve multiple FD users on the ground. We propose a multi-objective optimization framework which considers two desirable objective functions, namely sum uplink (UL) rate maximization and sum downlink (DL) rate maximization while providing quality-of-service to all the users in the communication network. A novel resource allocation multi-objective-optimization-problem (MOOP) is designed which optimizes the downlink beamformer, the beamwidth angle, and the 3D position of the UAV, and also the UL power of the FD users. The formulated MOOP is a non-convex problem which is generally intractable. To handle the MOOP, a weighted Tchebycheff method is proposed, which converts the problem to the single-objective-optimization-problem (SOOP). Further, an alternative optimization approach is used, where SOOP is converted in to multiple sub-problems and optimization variables are operated alternatively. The numerical results show a trade-off region between sum UL and sum DL rate, and also validate that the considered FD system provides substantial improvement over traditional HD systems. 
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  4. Full-duplex (FD) communication in many-antenna base stations (BSs) is hampered by self-interference (SI). This is because a FD node’s transmitting signal generates significant interference to its own receiver. Recent works have shown that it is possible to reduce/eliminate this SI in fully digital many-antenna systems, e.g., through transmit beamforming by using some spatial degrees of freedom to reduce SI instead of increasing the beamforming gain. On a parallel front, hybrid beamforming has recently emerged as a radio architecture that uses multiple antennas per FR chain. This can significantly reduce the cost of the end device (e.g., BS) but may also reduce the capacity or SI reduction gains of a fully digital radio system. This is because a fully digital radio architecture can change both the amplitude and phase of the wireless signal and send different data streams from each antenna element. Our goal in this paper is to quantify the performance gap between these two radio architectures in terms of SI cancellation and system capacity, particularly in multi-user MIMO setups. To do so, we experimentally compare the performance of a state-of-the-art fully digital many antenna FD solution to a hybrid beamforming architecture and compare the corresponding performance metrics leveraging a fully programmable many-antenna testbed and collecting over-the-air wireless channel data. We show that SI cancellation through beam design on a hybrid beamforming radio architecture can achieve capacity within 16% of that of a fully digital architecture. The performance gap further shrinks with a higher number of quantization bits in the hybrid beamforming system. 
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