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  1. Abstract

    We present the first demonstration of a fully-flexible, self-powered glucose indicator system that synergizes two flexible electronic technologies: a flexible self-powering unit in the form of a biofuel cell, with a flexible electronic device - a circuit-board decal fabricated with biocompatible microbial nanocellulose. Our proof-of-concept device, comprising an enzymatic glucose fuel cell, glucose sensor and a LED indicator, does not require additional electronic equipment for detection or verification; and the entire structure collapses into a microns-thin, self-adhering, single-centimeter-square decal, weighing less than 40 mg. The flexible glucose indicator system continuously operates a light emitting diode (LED) through a capacitive charge/discharge cycle, which is directly correlated to the glucose concentration. Our indicator was shown to operate at high sensitivity within a linear glucose concentration range of 1 mM–45 mM glucose continuously, achieving a 1.8 VDC output from a flexible indicator system that deliver sufficient power to drive an LED circuit. Importantly, the results presented provide a basis upon which further development of indicator systems with biocompatible diffusing polymers to act as buffering diffusion barriers, thereby allowing them to be potentially useful for low-cost, direct-line-of-sight applications in medicine, husbandry, agriculture, and the food and beverage industries.

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  2. Abstract In this work, a low power microcontroller-based near field communication (NFC) interfaced with a flexible abiotic glucose hybrid fuel cell is designed to function as a battery-less glucose sensor. The abiotic glucose fuel cell is fabricated by depositing colloidal platinum (co–Pt) on the anodic region and silver oxide nanoparticles-multiwalled carbon nanotubes (Ag 2 O-MWCNTs) composite on the cathodic region. The electrochemical behavior is characterized using cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. This glucose hybrid fuel cell generated an open circuit voltage of 0.46 V, short circuit current density of 0.444 mA/cm 2 , and maximum power density of 0.062 mW/cm 2 at 0.26 V in the presence of 7 mM physiologic glucose. Upon device integration of the abiotic glucose hybrid fuel cell with the NFC module, the data from the glucose monitoring system is successfully transmitted to an android application for visualization at the user interface. The cell voltage correlated (r 2  = 0.989) with glucose concentration (up to 19 mM) with a sensitivity of 13.9 mV/mM•cm 2 . 
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  3. A glucose biofuel cell is presented using laser induced 3D graphene (LIG) substrate integrated with catalytic active nanomaterials for harnessing the biochemical energy of glucose. The LIG anode comprised glucose dehydrogenase immobilized on reduced graphene oxide and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (RGO/MWCNTs) nanocomposite for glucose oxidation. The LIG cathode is modified with RGO/MWCNTs and silver oxide (Ag 2 O) nanocomposites for the reduction of oxygen. The assembled biofuel cell exhibited a linear peak power response up to 18 mM glucose with sensitivity of 0.63 μW mM -1 cm −2 and exhibited good linearity (r 2 = 0.99). The glucose biofuel cell showed an open-circuit voltage of 0.365 V, a maximum power density of 11.3 μW cm −2 at a cell voltage of 0.25 V, and a short-circuit current density of 45.18 μA cm −2 when operating in 18 mM glucose. Cyclic voltammetry revealed the bioanode exhibited similar linearity for the detection of glucose. These results demonstrate that LIG based bioelectrodes offer great promise for diverse applications in the development of hybrid biofuel cell and biosensor technology. 
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  4. A glucose biofuel cell on a flexible bacterial nanocellulose film was prepared. The bioelectrodes were printed using gold ink as the conductive material. The anode was modified with colloidal platinum for the oxidation of glucose. The cathode was modified with a nanocomposite comprising gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and silver oxide (Ag2O) nanoparticles. The cathode was characterized via cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and UV spectroscopy techniques. The assembled biofuel cell generated a maximum open circuit voltage (V oc ) of 0.485 V, short circuit current (I sc ) of 0.352 mA/cm 2 , and a maximum peak power density (P max ) of 0.032 mW/cm 2 when operating in 30 mM concentration. This system showed a stable and linear performance with a linear range of 1 mM to 30 mM glucose. The gold printed electrode process is applicable to the development of wearable and implantable abiotic biofuel cell. 
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