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  1. Neural methods are state-of-the-art for urban prediction problems such as transportation resource demand, accident risk, crowd mobility, and public safety. Model performance can be improved by integrating exogenous features from open data repositories (e.g., weather, housing prices, traffic, etc.), but these uncurated sources are often too noisy, incomplete, and biased to use directly. We propose to learn integrated representations, called EquiTensors, from heterogeneous datasets that can be reused across a variety of tasks. We align datasets to a consistent spatio-temporal domain, then describe an unsupervised model based on convolutional denoising autoencoders to learn shared representations. We extend this core integrativemore »model with adaptive weighting to prevent certain datasets from dominating the signal. To combat discriminatory bias, we use adversarial learning to remove correlations with a sensitive attribute (e.g., race or income). Experiments with 23 input datasets and 4 real applications show that EquiTensors could help mitigate the effects of the sensitive information embodied in the biased data. Meanwhile, applications using EquiTensors outperform models that ignore exogenous features and are competitive with "oracle" models that use hand-selected datasets.« less
  2. We propose JECL, a method for clustering image-caption pairs by training parallel encoders with regularized clustering and alignment objectives, simultaneously learning both representations and cluster assignments. These image-caption pairs arise frequently in high-value applications where structured training data is expensive to produce, but free-text descriptions are common. JECL trains by minimizing the Kullback-Leibler divergence between the distribution of the images and text to that of a combined joint target distribution and optimizing the Jensen-Shannon divergence between the soft cluster assignments of the images and text. Regularizers are also applied to JECL to prevent trivial solutions. Experiments show that JECL outperformsmore »both single-view and multi-view methods on large benchmark image-caption datasets, and is remarkably robust to missing captions and varying data sizes.« less
  3. Emerging transportation modes, including car-sharing, bike-sharing, and ride-hailing, are transforming urban mobility yet have been shown to reinforce socioeconomic inequity. These services rely on accurate demand prediction, but the demand data on which these models are trained reflect biases around demographics, socioeconomic conditions, and entrenched geographic patterns. To address these biases and improve fairness, we present FairST, a fairness-aware demand prediction model for spatiotemporal urban applications, with emphasis on new mobility. We use 1D (time-varying, space-constant), 2D (space-varying, time-constant) and 3D (both time- and space-varying) convolutional branches to integrate heterogeneous features, while including fairness metrics as a form of regularizationmore »to improve equity across demographic groups. We propose two spatiotemporal fairness metrics, region-based fairness gap (RFG), applicable when demographic information is provided as a constant for a region, and individual-based fairness gap (IFG), applicable when a continuous distribution of demographic information is available. Experimental results on bike share and ride share datasets show that FairST can reduce inequity in demand prediction for multiple sensitive attributes (i.e. race, age, and education level), while achieving better accuracy than even state-of-the-art fairness-oblivious methods.« less
  4. This paper reviews the methods and findings of mobility equity studies, with a focus on new mobility.
  5. We present a fairness-aware model for predicting demand for new mobility systems. Our approach, called FairST, consists of 1D, 2D and 3D convolutions to learn the spatial-temporal dynamics of a mobility system, and fairness regularizers that guide the model to make equitable predictions. We propose two fairness metrics, region-based fairness gap (RFG) and individual-based fairness gap (IFG), that measure equity gaps between social groups for new mobility systems. Experimental results on two real-world datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed model: FairST not only reduces the fairness gap by more than 80%, but achieves better accuracy than state-of-the-art but fairness-obliviousmore »methods including LSTMs, ConvLSTMs, and 3D CNN.« less