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  1. Abstract

    We propose an architecture of quantum-error-correction-based quantum repeaters that combines techniques used in discrete- and continuous-variable quantum information. Specifically, we propose to encode the transmitted qubits in a concatenated code consisting of two levels. On the first level we use a continuous-variable GKP code encoding the qubit in a single bosonic mode. On the second level we use a small discrete-variable code. Such an architecture has two important features. Firstly, errors on each of the two levels are corrected in repeaters of two different types. This enables for achieving performance needed in practical scenarios with a reduced cost with respect to an architecture for which all repeaters are the same. Secondly, the use of continuous-variable GKP code on the lower level generates additional analog information which enhances the error-correcting capabilities of the second-level code such that long-distance communication becomes possible with encodings consisting of only four or seven optical modes.

  2. Spin systems are an attractive candidate for quantum-enhanced metrology. Here we develop a variational method to generate metrological states in small dipolar-interacting ensembles with limited qubit controls and unknown spin locations. The generated states enable sensing beyond the standard quantum limit (SQL) and approaching the Heisenberg limit (HL). Depending on the circuit depth and the level of readout noise, the resulting states resemble Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states or Spin Squeezed States (SSS). Sensing beyond the SQL holds in the presence of finite spin polarization and a non-Markovian noise environment.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 7, 2023
  3. Quantum metrology enables some of the most precise measurements. In the life sciences, diamond-based quantum sensing has led to a new class of biophysical sensors and diagnostic devices that are being investigated as a platform for cancer screening and ultrasensitive immunoassays. However, a broader application in the life sciences based on nanoscale NMR spectroscopy has been hampered by the need to interface highly sensitive quantum bit (qubit) sensors with their biological targets. Here, we demonstrate an approach that combines quantum engineering with single-molecule biophysics to immobilize individual proteins and DNA molecules on the surface of a bulk diamond crystal that hosts coherent nitrogen vacancy qubit sensors. Our thin (sub–5 nm) functionalization architecture provides precise control over the biomolecule adsorption density and results in near-surface qubit coherence approaching 100 μs. The developed architecture remains chemically stable under physiological conditions for over 5 d, making our technique compatible with most biophysical and biomedical applications.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 22, 2023
  4. Quantum metrology enables some of the most precise measurements. In the life sciences, diamond-based quantum sensing has enabled a new class of biophysical sensors and diagnostic devices that are being investigated as a platform for cancer screening and ultra-sensitive immunoassays. However, a broader application in the life sciences based on nanoscale nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy has been hampered by the need to interface highly sensitive quantum bit (qubit) sensors with their biological targets. Here, we demonstrate a new approach that combines quantum engineering with single-molecule biophysics to immobilize individual proteins and DNA molecules on the surface of a bulk diamond crystal that hosts coherent nitrogen vacancy qubit sensors. Our thin (sub-5 nm) functionalization architecture provides precise control over protein adsorption density and results in near-surface qubit coherence approaching 100 {\mu}s. The developed architecture remains chemically stable under physiological conditions for over five days, making our technique compatible with most biophysical and biomedical applications.
  5. Covariant codes are quantum codes such that a symmetry transformation on the logical system could be realized by a symmetry transformation on the physical system, usually with limited capability of performing quantum error correction (an important case being the Eastin–Knill theorem). The need for understanding the limits of covariant quantum error correction arises in various realms of physics including fault-tolerant quantum computation, condensed matter physics and quantum gravity. Here, we explore covariant quantum error correction with respect to continuous symmetries from the perspectives of quantum metrology and quantum resource theory, establishing solid connections between these formerly disparate fields. We prove new and powerful lower bounds on the infidelity of covariant quantum error correction, which not only extend the scope of previous no-go results but also provide a substantial improvement over existing bounds. Explicit lower bounds are derived for both erasure and depolarizing noises. We also present a type of covariant codes which nearly saturates these lower bounds.