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  1. Cryptographic tools for authenticating the provenance of web-based information are a promising approach to increasing trust in online news and information. However, making these tools’ technical assurances sufficiently usable for news consumers is essential to realizing their potential. We conduct an online study with 160 participants to investigate how the presentation (visual vs. textual) and location (on a news article page or a third-party site) of the provenance information affects news consumers’ perception of the content’s credibility and trustworthiness, as well as the usability of the tool itself. We find that although the visual presentation of provenance information is more challenging to adopt than its text-based counterpart, this approach leads its users to put more faith in the credibility and trustworthiness of digital news, especially when situated internally to the news article. 
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  2. To combat declining trust in news in the United States, numerous tools have been created to increase transparency by providing contextual information around news content, but they have largely been developed without regard for usability. We examine 59 such tools to identify the type(s) of transparency (disclosure, participatory, or ambient) information each tool aims to provide. We then conduct a heuristic usability analysis of a subset of these transparency tools and identify common usability barriers. 
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  3. Tracking changes in digital texts is a longstanding interface challenge, as early digital technologies left no recorded traces of alterations. Currently, two key categories of tools track text changes: code editing and word processing tools. Each has implemented different interface patterns to accomplish several goals: attributing change authorship, tracking the time of change, recording the change action taken, and specifying the location and content of the change. While some visual characteristics of change tracking are consistent across all tools, there are significant differences in change representation divided along the tool-type line, that may reflect their specific cultures of use. Overall, however, there is a limited range of visual methods for representing changes to digital text over time. 
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  4. This paper describes how cryptographic provenance can serve as a proactive, partial solution for mitigating misinformation. Drawing on literature from human-centered computing and usable security, journalism, and cryptography, we discuss the advantages and limitations of both content-based and technical approaches to the problem of online misinformation. We argue cryptographic provenance systems designed for usability can reduce the spread of misinformation by surfacing provenance information and making this information salient and acceptable to information consumers. We highlight challenges and open research areas related to designing usable cryptographic provenance systems, specifically concerning two key stakeholder groups: journalists and news consumers. 
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