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  1. To combat declining trust in news in the United States, numerous tools have been created to increase transparency by providing contextual information around news content, but they have largely been developed without regard for usability. We examine 59 such tools to identify the type(s) of transparency (disclosure, participatory, or ambient) information each tool aims to provide. We then conduct a heuristic usability analysis of a subset of these transparency tools and identify common usability barriers. 
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  2. Tracking changes in digital texts is a longstanding interface challenge, as early digital technologies left no recorded traces of alterations. Currently, two key categories of tools track text changes: code editing and word processing tools. Each has implemented different interface patterns to accomplish several goals: attributing change authorship, tracking the time of change, recording the change action taken, and specifying the location and content of the change. While some visual characteristics of change tracking are consistent across all tools, there are significant differences in change representation divided along the tool-type line, that may reflect their specific cultures of use. Overall, however, there is a limited range of visual methods for representing changes to digital text over time. 
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