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  1. We study the problem of approximating maximum Nash social welfare (NSW) when allocatingmindivisible items amongnasymmetric agents with submodular valuations. TheNSWis a well-established notion of fairness and efficiency, defined as the weighted geometric mean of agents’ valuations. For special cases of the problem with symmetric agents and additive(-like) valuation functions, approximation algorithms have been designed using approaches customized for these specific settings, and they fail to extend to more general settings. Hence, no approximation algorithm with a factor independent ofmwas known either for asymmetric agents with additive valuations or for symmetric agents beyond additive(-like) valuations before this work.

    In this article, we extend our understanding of theNSWproblem to far more general settings. Our main contribution is two approximation algorithms for asymmetric agents with additive and submodular valuations. Both algorithms are simple to understand and involve non-trivial modifications of a greedy repeated matchings approach. Allocations of high-valued items are done separately by un-matching certain items and re-matching them by different processes in both algorithms. We show that these approaches achieve approximation factors ofO(n) andO(nlogn) for additive and submodular cases, independent of the number of items. For additive valuations, our algorithm outputs an allocation that also achieves the fairness property of envy-free up to one item (EF1).

    Furthermore, we show that theNSWproblem under submodular valuations is strictly harder than all currently known settings with an\(\frac{\mathrm{e}}{\mathrm{e}-1}\)factor of the hardness of approximation, even for constantly many agents. For this case, we provide a different approximation algorithm that achieves a factor of\(\frac{\mathrm{e}}{\mathrm{e}-1}\), hence resolving it completely.

     
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 31, 2024
  2. We study markets with mixed manna, where m divisible goods and chores shall be divided among n agents to obtain a competitive equilibrium. Equilibrium allocations are known to satisfy many fairness and efficiency conditions. While a lot of recent work in fair division is restricted to linear utilities and chores, we focus on a substantial generalization to separable piecewise-linear and concave (SPLC) utilities and mixed manna. We first derive polynomial-time algorithms for markets with a constant number of items or a constant number of agents. Our main result is a polynomial-time algorithm for instances with a constant number of chores (as well as any number of goods and agents) under the condition that chores dominate the utility of the agents. Interestingly, this stands in contrast to the case when the goods dominate the agents utility in equilibrium, where the problem is known to be PPAD-hard even without chores.

     
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 13, 2024
  3. We study the problem of fairly and efficiently allocating indivisible chores among agents with additive disutility functions. We consider the widely used envy-based fairness properties of EF1 and EFX in conjunction with the efficiency property of fractional Pareto-optimality (fPO). Existence (and computation) of an allocation that is simultaneously EF1/EFX and fPO are challenging open problems, and we make progress on both of them. We show the existence of an allocation that is- EF1 + fPO, when there are three agents,- EF1 + fPO, when there are at most two disutility functions,- EFX + fPO, for three agents with bivalued disutility functions.These results are constructive, based on strongly polynomial-time algorithms. We also investigate non-existence and show that an allocation that is EFX+fPO need not exist, even for two agents.

     
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2024
  4. For the fundamental problem of fairly dividing a set of indivisible items among agents, envy-freeness up to any item (EFX) and maximin fairness (MMS) are arguably the most compelling fairness concepts proposed till now. Unfortunately, despite significant efforts over the past few years, whether EFX allocations always exist is still an enigmatic open problem, let alone their efficient computation. Furthermore, today we know that MMS allocations are not always guaranteed to exist. These facts weaken the usefulness of both EFX and MMS, albeit their appealing conceptual characteristics.We propose two alternative fairness concepts—called epistemic EFX (EEFX) and minimum EFX value fairness (MXS)---inspired by EFX and MMS. For both, we explore their relationships to well-studied fairness notions and, more importantly, prove that EEFX and MXS allocations always exist and can be computed efficiently for additive valuations. Our results justify that the new fairness concepts are excellent alternatives to EFX and MMS.

     
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2024
  5. We consider the problem of fairly allocating a set of indivisible goods among n agents with additive valuations, using the popular fairness notion of maximin share (MMS). Since MMS allocations do not always exist, a series of works provided existence and algorithms for approximate MMS allocations. The Garg-Taki algorithm gives the current best approximation factor of (3/4 + 1/12n). Most of these results are based on complicated analyses, especially those providing better than 2/3 factor. Moreover, since no tight example is known of the Garg-Taki algorithm, it is unclear if this is the best factor of this approach. In this paper, we significantly simplify the analysis of this algorithm and also improve the existence guarantee to a factor of (3/4 + min(1/36, 3/(16n-4))). For small n, this provides a noticeable improvement. Furthermore, we present a tight example of this algorithm, showing that this may be the best factor one can hope for with the current techniques.

     
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2024
  6. We study fair division of indivisible chores among n agents with additive disutility functions. Two well-studied fairness notions for indivisible items are envy-freeness up to one/any item (EF1/EFX) and the standard notion of economic efficiency is Pareto optimality (PO). There is a noticeable gap between the results known for both EF1 and EFX in the goods and chores settings. The case of chores turns out to be much more challenging. We reduce this gap by providing slightly relaxed versions of the known results on goods for the chores setting. Interestingly, our algorithms run in polynomial time, unlike their analogous versions in the goods setting.We introduce the concept of k surplus in the chores setting which means that up to k more chores are allocated to the agents and each of them is a copy of an original chore. We present a polynomial-time algorithm which gives EF1 and PO allocations with n-1 surplus.We relax the notion of EFX slightly and define tEFX which requires that the envy from agent i to agent j is removed upon the transfer of any chore from the i's bundle to j's bundle. We give a polynomial-time algorithm that in the chores case for 3 agents returns an allocation which is either proportional or tEFX. Note that proportionality is a very strong criterion in the case of indivisible items, and hence both notions we guarantee are desirable.

     
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2024
  7. Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 7, 2024