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  1. Event perception tasks such as recognizing and localizing actions in streaming videos are essential for scaling to real-world application contexts. We tackle the problem of learning actor-centered representations through the notion of continual hierarchical predictive learning to localize actions in streaming videos without the need for training labels and outlines for the objects in the video. We propose a framework driven by the notion of hierarchical predictive learning to construct actor-centered features by attention-based contextualization. The key idea is that predictable features or objects do not attract attention and hence do not contribute to the action of interest. Experiments on three benchmark datasets show that the approach can learn robust representations for localizing actions using only one epoch of training, i.e., a single pass through the streaming video. We show that the proposed approach outperforms unsupervised and weakly supervised baselines while offering competitive performance to fully supervised approaches. Additionally, we extend the model to multi-actor settings to recognize group activities while localizing the multiple, plausible actors. We also show that it generalizes to out-of-domain data with limited performance degradation.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2023
  2. Commonsense question answering has primarily been tackled through supervised transfer learning, where a language model pre-trained on large amounts of data is used as the starting point. While successful, the approach requires large amounts of labeled question-answer pairs, with increasingly larger amounts of data required as the complexity of scenarios or tasks such as commonsense QA increases. In this paper, we hypothesize that large-scale pre-training of language models encodes the necessary commonsense knowledge to answer common questions in context without labeled data. We propose a novel framework called Iterative Self Distillation for QA (ISD-QA), which extracts the “dark knowledge” encoded during largescale pre-training of language models to provide supervision for commonsense question answering. We show that the approach can be used to train common neural QA models for commonsense question answering by distilling knowledge from language models in an unsupervised manner. With no bells and whistles, we achieve an average of 68% of the performance of fully supervised QA models while requiring no labeled training data. Extensive experiments on three public benchmarks (OpenBookQA, HellaSWAG, and CommonsenseQA) show the effectiveness of the proposed approach.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2023
  3. Graph-based representations are becoming increasingly popular for representing and analyzing video data, especially in object tracking and scene understanding applications. Accordingly, an essential tool in this approach is to generate statistical inferences for graphical time series associated with videos. This paper develops a Kalman-smoothing method for estimating graphs from noisy, cluttered, and incomplete data. The main challenge here is to find and preserve the registration of nodes (salient detected objects) across time frames when the data has noise and clutter due to false and missing nodes. First, we introduce a quotient-space representation of graphs that incorporates temporal registration of nodes, and we use that metric structure to impose a dynamical model on graph evolution. Then, we derive a Kalman smoother, adapted to the quotient space geometry, to estimate dense, smooth trajectories of graphs. We demonstrate this framework using simulated data and actual video graphs extracted from the Multiview Extended Video with Activities (MEVA) dataset. This framework successfully estimates graphs despite the noise, clutter, and missed detections.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2023
  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2023
  5. Visual event perception tasks such as action localization have primarily focused on supervised learning settings under a static observer, i.e., the camera is static and cannot be controlled by an algorithm. They are often restricted by the quality, quantity, and diversity of annotated training data and do not often generalize to out-of-domain samples. In this work, we tackle the problem of active action localization where the goal is to localize an action while controlling the geometric and physical parameters of an active camera to keep the action in the field of view without training data. We formulate an energy-based mechanism that combines predictive learning and reactive control to perform active action localization without rewards, which can be sparse or non-existent in real-world environments. We perform extensive experiments in both simulated and real-world environments on two tasks - active object tracking and active action localization. We demonstrate that the proposed approach can generalize to different tasks and environments in a streaming fashion, without explicit rewards or training. We show that the proposed approach outperforms unsupervised baselines and obtains competitive performance compared to those trained with reinforcement learning.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2023
  6. Egocentric perception has grown rapidly with the advent of immersive computing devices. Human gaze prediction is an important problem in analyzing egocentric videos and has primarily been tackled through either saliency-based modeling or highly supervised learning. We quantitatively analyze the generalization capabilities of supervised, deep learning models on the egocentric gaze prediction task on unseen, out-of-domain data. We find that their performance is highly dependent on the training data and is restricted to the domains specified in the training annotations. In this work, we tackle the problem of jointly predicting human gaze points and temporal segmentation of egocentric videos without using any training data. We introduce an unsupervised computational model that draws inspiration from cognitive psychology models of event perception. We use Grenander's pattern theory formalism to represent spatial-temporal features and model surprise as a mechanism to predict gaze fixation points. Extensive evaluation on two publicly available datasets - GTEA and GTEA+ datasets-shows that the proposed model can significantly outperform all unsupervised baselines and some supervised gaze prediction baselines. Finally, we show that the model can also temporally segment egocentric videos with a performance comparable to more complex, fully supervised deep learning baselines.
  7. Vedaldi, A. ; Bischof, H. ; Brox, T. ; Frahm, JM. (Ed.)
    The problem of action localization involves locating the action in the video, both over time and spatially in the image. The current dominant approaches use supervised learning to solve this problem. They require large amounts of annotated training data, in the form of frame-level bounding box annotations around the region of interest. In this paper, we present a new approach based on continual learning that uses feature-level predictions for self-supervision. It does not require any training annotations in terms of frame-level bounding boxes. The approach is inspired by cognitive models of visual event perception that propose a prediction-based approach to event understanding. We use a stack of LSTMs coupled with a CNN encoder, along with novel attention mechanisms, to model the events in the video and use this model to predict high-level features for the future frames. The prediction errors are used to learn the parameters of the models continuously. This self-supervised framework is not complicated as other approaches but is very effective in learning robust visual representations for both labeling and localization. It should be noted that the approach outputs in a streaming fashion, requiring only a single pass through the video, making it amenable for real-time processing. Wemore »demonstrate this on three datasets - UCF Sports, JHMDB, and THUMOS’13 and show that the proposed approach outperforms weakly-supervised and unsupervised baselines and obtains competitive performance compared to fully supervised baselines. Finally, we show that the proposed framework can generalize to egocentric videos and achieve state-of-the-art results on the unsupervised gaze prediction task.« less