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  1. Abstract

    Many barred galaxies exhibit upturns (shoulders) in their bar-major-axis density profile. Simulation studies have suggested that shoulders are supported by loopedx1orbits, occur in growing bars, and can appear after bar buckling. We investigate the orbital support and evolution of shoulders via frequency analyses of orbits in simulations. We confirm that looped orbits are shoulder-supporting, and can remain so, to a lesser extent, after being vertically thickened. We show that looped orbits appear at the resonance ( Ωφ− ΩP)/ΩR= 1/2 (analogous to the classical inner Lindblad resonance, and here called ILR) with vertical-to-radial frequency ratios 1 ≲ ΩzR≲ 3/2 (verticallywarmorbits).Coolorbits at the ILR (those with ΩzR> 3/2) are vertically thin and have no loops, contributing negligibly to shoulders. As bars slow and thicken, either secularly or by buckling, they populate warm orbits at the ILR. Further thickening carries these orbits toward crossing the vertical ILR [vILR, ( Ωφ− ΩP)/Ωz= 1/2], where they convert in-plane motion to vertical motion, become chaotic, kinematically hotter, and less shoulder-supporting. Hence, persistent shoulders require bars to trap new stars, consistent with the need for a growing bar. Since buckling speeds up trapping on warm orbits at the ILR, it can be followed by shoulder formation, as seen in simulations. This sequence supports the recent observational finding that shoulders likely precede the emergence of BP-bulges. The python module for the frequency analysis,naif, is made available.

     
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  2. Abstract

    We present a new constraint on the mass of the black hole in the active S0 galaxy NGC 5273. Due to the proximity of the galaxy at 16.6 ± 2.1 Mpc, we were able to resolve and extract the bulk motions of stars near the central black hole using adaptive-optics-assisted observations with the Gemini Near-infrared Integral Field Spectrograph, as well as constrain the large-scale kinematics using archival Spectroscopic Areal Unit for Research and Optical Nebulae spectroscopy. High-resolution Hubble Space Telescope imaging allowed us to generate a surface-brightness decomposition, determine approximate mass-to-light ratios for the bulge and disk, and obtain an estimate for the disk inclination. We constructed an extensive library of dynamical models using the Schwarzschild orbit-superposition code FORSTAND, exploring a range of disk and bulge shapes, halo masses, etc. We determined a black hole mass ofM= [0.5–2] × 107M, where the low side of the range is in agreement with the reverberation mapping measurement ofM= [4.7 ± 1.6] × 106M. NGC 5273 is one of the few nearby galaxies that hosts a broad-lined active galactic nucleus, allowing a crucial comparison of black hole masses derived from independent mass-measurement techniques.

     
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  3. Abstract

    We present the results of a new reverberation mapping campaign for the broad-line active galactic nucleus (AGN) in the edge-on spiral IC 4329A. Monitoring of the optical continuum withV-band photometry and broad emission-line flux variability with moderate-resolution spectroscopy allowed emission-line light curves to be measured for Hβ, Hγ, and Heiiλ4686. We find a time delay of16.32.3+2.6days for Hβ, a similar time delay of16.02.6+4.8days for Hγ, and an unresolved time delay of0.63.9+3.9days for Heii. The time delay for Hβis consistent with the predicted value from the relationship between AGN luminosity and broad-line region radius, after correction for the ∼2.4 mag of intrinsic extinction at 5100 Å. Combining the measured time delay for Hβwith the broad emission-line width and an adopted value of 〈f〉 = 4.8, we find a central supermassive black hole mass ofMBH=6.81.1+1.2×107M. Velocity-resolved time delays were measured across the broad Hβemission-line profile and may be consistent with an “M”-like shape. Modeling of the full reverberation response of Hβwas able to provide only modest constraints on some parameters, but does exhibit agreement with the black hole mass and average time delay. The models also suggest that the AGN structure is misaligned by a large amount from the edge-on galaxy disk. This is consistent with expectations from the unified model of AGNs, in which broad emission lines are expected to be visible only for AGNs that are viewed at relatively face-on inclinations.

     
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  4. null (Ed.)