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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 7, 2024
  2. The development of electrically pumped semiconductor diode lasers emitting at the ultraviolet (UV)-B and -C spectral bands has been an active area of research over the past several years, motivated by a wide range of emerging applications. III-Nitride materials and their alloys, in particular AlGaN, are the material of choice for the development of this ultrashort-wavelength laser technology. Despite significant progress in AlGaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs), the technological advancement and innovation in diode lasers at these spectral bands is lagging due to several technical challenges. Here, the authors review the progress of AlGaN electrically-pumped lasers with respect to very recent achievements made by the scientific community. The devices based on both thin films and nanowires demonstrated to date will be discussed in this review. The state-of-the-art growth technologies, such as molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD); and various foreign substrates/templates used for the laser demonstrations will be highlighted. We will also outline technical challenges associated with the laser development, which must be overcome in order to achieve a critical technological breakthrough and fully realize the potential of these lasers. 
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