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  1. Abstract

    Trapping of strain in layers deposited during extrusion‐based (fused filament fabrication) 3D printing has previously been documented. If fiber‐level strain trapping can be understood sufficiently and controlled, 3D shape‐memory polymer parts could be simultaneously fabricated and programmed via printing (programming via printing; PvP), thereby achieving precisely controlled 3D‐to‐3D transformations of complex part geometries. Yet, because previous studies have only examined strain trapping in solid printed parts—such as layers or 3D objects with 100% infill—fundamental aspects of the PvP process and the potential for PvP to be applied to printing of porous 3D parts remain poorly understood. This work examines the extent to which strain can be trapped in individual fibers and in fibers that span negative space and the extent to which infill geometry affects the magnitude and recovery of strain trapped in porous PvP‐fabricated 3D parts. Additionally, multiaxial shape change of porous PvP‐fabricated 3D parts are for the first time studied, modeled, and applied in a proof‐of‐concept application. This work demonstrates the feasibility of strain trapping in individual fibers in 1D, 2D, and 3D PvP‐fabricated parts and illustrates the potential for PvP to provide new strategies to address unmet needs in biomedical and other fields.

     
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  2. Wrinkle topographies have been studied as simple, versatile, and in some cases biomimetic surface functionalization strategies. To fabricate surface wrinkles, one material phenomenon employed is the mechanical-instability-driven wrinkling of thin films, which occurs when a deforming substrate produces sufficient compressive strain to buckle a surface thin film. Although thin-film wrinkling has been studied on shape-changing functional materials, including shape-memory polymers (SMPs), work to date has been primarily limited to simple geometries, such as flat, uniaxially-contracting substrates. Thus, there is a need for a strategy that would allow deformation of complex substrates or 3D parts to generate wrinkles on surfaces throughout that complex substrate or part. Here, 4D printing of SMPs is combined with polymeric and metallic thin films to develop and study an approach for fiber-level topographic functionalization suitable for use in printing of arbitrarily complex shape-changing substrates or parts. The effect of nozzle temperature, substrate architecture, and film thickness on wrinkles has been characterized, as well as wrinkle topography on nuclear alignment using scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and fluorescent imaging. As nozzle temperature increased, wrinkle wavelength increased while strain trapping and nuclear alignment decreased. Moreover, with increasing film thickness, the wavelength increased as well.

     
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  3. Costameres, as striated muscle-specific cell adhesions, anchor both M-lines and Z-lines of the sarcomeres to the extracellular matrix. Previous studies have demonstrated that costameres intimately participate in the initial assembly of myofibrils. However, how costamere maturation cooperates with myofibril growth is still underexplored. In this work, we analyzed zyxin (costameres), α-actinin (Z-lines) and myomesin (M-lines) to track the behaviors of costameres and myofibrils within the cardiomyocytes derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC-CMs). We quantified the assembly and maturation of costameres associated with the process of myofibril growth within the hiPSC-CMs in a time-dependent manner. We found that asynchrony existed not only between the maturation of myofibrils and costameres, but also between the formation of Z-costameres and M-costameres that associated with different structural components of the sarcomeres. This study helps us gain more understanding of how costameres assemble and incorporate into the cardiomyocyte sarcomeres, which sheds a light on cardiomyocyte mechanobiology. 
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