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  1. Abstract

    We consider the evolution of phylogenetic gene trees along phylogenetic species networks, according to the network multispecies coalescent process, and introduce a new network coalescent model with correlated inheritance of gene flow. This model generalizes two traditional versions of the network coalescent: with independent or common inheritance. At each reticulation, multiple lineages of a given locus are inherited from parental populations chosen at random, either independently across lineages or with positive correlation according to a Dirichlet process. This process may account for locus-specific probabilities of inheritance, for example. We implemented the simulation of gene trees under these network coalescent models in the Julia package PhyloCoalSimulations, which depends on PhyloNetworks and its powerful network manipulation tools. Input species phylogenies can be read in extended Newick format, either in numbers of generations or in coalescent units. Simulated gene trees can be written in Newick format, and in a way that preserves information about their embedding within the species network. This embedding can be used for downstream purposes, such as to simulate species-specific processes like rate variation across species, or for other scenarios as illustrated in this note. This package should be useful for simulation studies and simulation-based inference methods. The software is available open source with documentation and a tutorial at

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  2. Abstract

    We consider variants of a recently developed Newton-CG algorithm for nonconvex problems (Royer, C. W. & Wright, S. J. (2018) Complexity analysis of second-order line-search algorithms for smooth nonconvex optimization. SIAM J. Optim., 28, 1448–1477) in which inexact estimates of the gradient and the Hessian information are used for various steps. Under certain conditions on the inexactness measures, we derive iteration complexity bounds for achieving $\epsilon $-approximate second-order optimality that match best-known lower bounds. Our inexactness condition on the gradient is adaptive, allowing for crude accuracy in regions with large gradients. We describe two variants of our approach, one in which the step size along the computed search direction is chosen adaptively, and another in which the step size is pre-defined. To obtain second-order optimality, our algorithms will make use of a negative curvature direction on some steps. These directions can be obtained, with high probability, using the randomized Lanczos algorithm. In this sense, all of our results hold with high probability over the run of the algorithm. We evaluate the performance of our proposed algorithms empirically on several machine learning models. Our approach is a first attempt to introduce inexact Hessian and/or gradient information into the Newton-CG algorithm of Royer & Wright (2018, Complexity analysis of second-order line-search algorithms for smooth nonconvex optimization. SIAM J. Optim., 28, 1448–1477).

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  3. Abstract

    We study a model for adversarial classification based on distributionally robust chance constraints. We show that under Wasserstein ambiguity, the model aims to minimize the conditional value-at-risk of the distance to misclassification, and we explore links to adversarial classification models proposed earlier and to maximum-margin classifiers. We also provide a reformulation of the distributionally robust model for linear classification, and show it is equivalent to minimizing a regularized ramp loss objective. Numerical experiments show that, despite the nonconvexity of this formulation, standard descent methods appear to converge to the global minimizer for this problem. Inspired by this observation, we show that, for a certain class of distributions, the only stationary point of the regularized ramp loss minimization problem is the global minimizer.

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  4. Abstract

    Various machine learning models have been used to predict the properties of polycrystalline materials, but none of them directly consider the physical interactions among neighboring grains despite such microscopic interactions critically determining macroscopic material properties. Here, we develop a graph neural network (GNN) model for obtaining an embedding of polycrystalline microstructure which incorporates not only the physical features of individual grains but also their interactions. The embedding is then linked to the target property using a feed-forward neural network. Using the magnetostriction of polycrystalline Tb0.3Dy0.7Fe2alloys as an example, we show that a single GNN model with fixed network architecture and hyperparameters allows for a low prediction error of ~10% over a group of remarkably different microstructures as well as quantifying the importance of each feature in each grain of a microstructure to its magnetostriction. Such a microstructure-graph-based GNN model, therefore, enables an accurate and interpretable prediction of the properties of polycrystalline materials.

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  5. Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 4, 2024
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  7. Carreira-Perpinan, Miguel (Ed.)
    In this work we study statistical properties of graph-based algorithms for multi-manifold clustering (MMC). In MMC the goal is to retrieve the multi-manifold structure underlying a given Euclidean data set when this one is assumed to be obtained by sampling a distribution on a union of manifolds M = M1 ∪ · · · ∪ MN that may intersect with each other and that may have different dimensions. We investigate sufficient conditions that similarity graphs on data sets must satisfy in order for their corresponding graph Laplacians to capture the right geometric information to solve the MMC problem. Precisely, we provide high probability error bounds for the spectral approximation of a tensorized Laplacian on M with a suitable graph Laplacian built from the observations; the recovered tensorized Laplacian contains all geometric information of all the individual underlying manifolds. We provide an example of a family of similarity graphs, which we call annular proximity graphs with angle constraints, satisfying these sufficient conditions. We contrast our family of graphs with other constructions in the literature based on the alignment of tangent planes. Extensive numerical experiments expand the insights that our theory provides on the MMC problem. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2024
  8. Tang, H. (Ed.)
    Rooted species trees are used in several downstream applications of phylogenetics. Most species tree estimation methods produce unrooted trees and additional methods are then used to root these unrooted trees. Recently, Quintet Rooting (QR) (Tabatabaee et al., ISMB and Bioinformatics 2022), a polynomial-time method for rooting an unrooted species tree given unrooted gene trees under the multispecies coalescent, was introduced. QR, which is based on a proof of identifiability of rooted 5-taxon trees in the presence of incomplete lineage sorting, was shown to have good accuracy, improving over other methods for rooting species trees when incomplete lineage sorting was the only cause of gene tree discordance, except when gene tree estimation error was very high. However, the statistical consistency of QR was left as an open question. Here, we present QR-STAR, a polynomial-time variant of QR that has an additional step for determining the rooted shape of each quintet tree. We prove that QR-STAR is statistically consistent under the multispecies coalescent model, and our simulation study shows that QR-STAR matches or improves on the accuracy of QR. QR-STAR is available in open source form at 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 3, 2024
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  10. Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2024