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  1. Abstract

    A diffusive memristor is a promising building block for brain‐inspired computing hardware. However, the randomness in the device relaxation dynamics limits the wide‐range adoption of diffusive memristors in large arrays. In this work, the device stack is engineered to achieve a much‐improved uniformity in the relaxation time (standard deviation σ reduced from ≈12 to ≈0.32 ms). The memristor is further connected with a resistor or a capacitor and the relaxation time is tuned between 1.13 µs and 1.25 ms, ranging from three orders of magnitude. The hierarchy of time surfaces (HOTS) algorithm, to utilize the tunable and uniform relaxation behavior for spike generation, is implemented. An accuracy of 77.3% is achieved in recognizing moving objects in the neuromorphic MNIST (N‐MNIST) dataset. The work paves the way for building emerging neuromorphic computing hardware systems with ultralow power consumption.

     
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  2. Abstract

    The increasing interests in analog computing nowadays call for multipurpose analog computing platforms with reconfigurability. The advancement of analog computing, enabled by novel electronic elements like memristors, has shown its potential to sustain the exponential growth of computing demand in the new era of analog data deluge. Here, a platform of a memristive field‐programmable analog array (memFPAA) is experimentally demonstrated with memristive devices serving as a variety of core analog elements and CMOS components as peripheral circuits. The memFPAA is reconfigured to implement a first‐order band pass filter, an audio equalizer, and an acoustic mixed frequency classifier, as application examples. The memFPAA, featured with programmable analog memristors, memristive routing networks, and memristive vector‐matrix multipliers, opens opportunities for fast prototyping analog designs as well as efficient analog applications in signal processing and neuromorphic computing.

     
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  3. Abstract

    Different from nonvolatile memory applications, neuromorphic computing applications utilize not only the static conductance states but also the switching dynamics for computing, which calls for compact dynamical models of memristive devices. In this work, a generalized model to simulate diffusive and drift memristors with the same set of equations is presented, which have been used to reproduce experimental results faithfully. The diffusive memristor is chosen as the basis for the generalized model because it possesses complex dynamical properties that are difficult to model efficiently. A data set from statistical measurements on SiO2:Ag diffusive memristors is collected to verify the validity of the general model. As an application example, spike‐timing‐dependent plasticity is demonstrated with an artificial synapse consisting of a diffusive memristor and a drift memristor, both modeled with this comprehensive compact model.

     
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  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 30, 2024
  5. Progress in hardware and algorithms for artificial intelligence (AI) has ushered in large machine learning models and various applications impacting our everyday lives. However, today's AI, mainly artificial neural networks, still cannot compete with human brains because of two major issues: the high energy consumption of the hardware running AI models and the lack of ability to generalize knowledge and self-adapt to changes. Neuromorphic systems built upon emerging devices, for instance, memristors, provide a promising path to address these issues. Although innovative memristor devices and circuit designs have been proposed for neuromorphic computing and applied to different proof-of-concept applications, there is still a long way to go to build large-scale low-power memristor-based neuromorphic systems that can bridge the gap between AI and biological brains. This Perspective summarizes the progress and challenges from memristor devices to neuromorphic systems and proposes possible directions for neuromorphic system implementation based on memristive devices. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 13, 2024
  6. In this work, the effect of rapid thermal annealing (RTA) temperature on the ferroelectric polarization in zirconium-doped hafnium oxide (HZO) was studied. To maximize remnant polarization (2P r ), in-plane tensile stress was induced by tungsten electrodes under optimal RTA temperatures. We observed an increase in 2P r with RTA temperature, likely due to an increased proportion of the polar ferroelectric phase in HZO. The HZO capacitors annealed at 400°C did not exhibit any ferroelectric behavior, whereas the HZO capacitors annealed at 800°C became highly leaky and shorted for voltages above 1 V. On the other hand, annealing at 700 °C produced HZO capacitors with a record-high 2P r of ∼ 64 μ C cm −2  at a relatively high frequency of 111 kHz. These ferroelectric capacitors have also demonstrated impressive endurance and retention characteristics, which will greatly benefit neuromorphic computing applications. 
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