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  1. Abstract Most diseases disrupt multiple proteins, and drugs treat such diseases by restoring the functions of the disrupted proteins. How drugs restore these functions, however, is often unknown as a drug’s therapeutic effects are not limited to the proteins that the drug directly targets. Here, we develop the multiscale interactome, a powerful approach to explain disease treatment. We integrate disease-perturbed proteins, drug targets, and biological functions into a multiscale interactome network. We then develop a random walk-based method that captures how drug effects propagate through a hierarchy of biological functions and physical protein-protein interactions. On three key pharmacological tasks, themore »multiscale interactome predicts drug-disease treatment, identifies proteins and biological functions related to treatment, and predicts genes that alter a treatment’s efficacy and adverse reactions. Our results indicate that physical interactions between proteins alone cannot explain treatment since many drugs treat diseases by affecting the biological functions disrupted by the disease rather than directly targeting disease proteins or their regulators. We provide a general framework for explaining treatment, even when drugs seem unrelated to the diseases they are recommended for.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2022
  2. The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the need to quickly and reliably prioritize clinically approved compounds for their potential effectiveness for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections. Here, we deployed algorithms relying on artificial intelligence, network diffusion, and network proximity, tasking each of them to rank 6,340 drugs for their expected efficacy against SARS-CoV-2. To test the predictions, we used as ground truth 918 drugs experimentally screened in VeroE6 cells, as well as the list of drugs in clinical trials that capture the medical community’s assessment of drugs with potential COVID-19 efficacy. We find that no single predictive algorithmmore »offers consistently reliable outcomes across all datasets and metrics. This outcome prompted us to develop a multimodal technology that fuses the predictions of all algorithms, finding that a consensus among the different predictive methods consistently exceeds the performance of the best individual pipelines. We screened in human cells the top-ranked drugs, obtaining a 62% success rate, in contrast to the 0.8% hit rate of nonguided screenings. Of the six drugs that reduced viral infection, four could be directly repurposed to treat COVID-19, proposing novel treatments for COVID-19. We also found that 76 of the 77 drugs that successfully reduced viral infection do not bind the proteins targeted by SARS-CoV-2, indicating that these network drugs rely on network-based mechanisms that cannot be identified using docking-based strategies. These advances offer a methodological pathway to identify repurposable drugs for future pathogens and neglected diseases underserved by the costs and extended timeline of de novo drug development.« less
  3. As the representations output by Graph Neural Networks (GNNs) are increasingly employed in real-world applications, it becomes important to ensure that these representations are fair and stable. In this work, we establish a key connection between counterfactual fairness and stability and leverage it to propose a novel framework, NIFTY (uNIfying Fairness and stabiliTY), which can be used with any GNN to learn fair and stable representations. We introduce a novel objective function that simultaneously accounts for fairness and stability and develop a layer-wise weight normalization using the Lipschitz constant to enhance neural message passing in GNNs. In doing so, wemore »enforce fairness and stability both in the objective function as well as in the GNN architecture. Further, we show theoretically that our layer-wise weight normalization promotes counterfactual fairness and stability in the resulting representations. We introduce three new graph datasets comprising of high-stakes decisions in criminal justice and financial lending domains. Extensive experimentation with the above datasets demonstrates the efficacy of our framework.« less
  4. Therapeutics machine learning is an emerging field with incredible opportunities for innovatiaon and impact. However, advancement in this field requires formulation of meaningful learning tasks and careful curation of datasets. Here, we introduce Therapeutics Data Commons (TDC), the first unifying platform to systematically access and evaluate machine learning across the entire range of therapeutics. To date, TDC includes 66 AI-ready datasets spread across 22 learning tasks and spanning the discovery and development of safe and effective medicines. TDC also provides an ecosystem of tools and community resources, including 33 data functions and types of meaningful data splits, 23 strategies formore »systematic model evaluation, 17 molecule generation oracles, and 29 public leaderboards. All resources are integrated and accessible via an open Python library. We carry out extensive experiments on selected datasets, demonstrating that even the strongest algorithms fall short of solving key therapeutics challenges, including real dataset distributional shifts, multi-scale modeling of heterogeneous data, and robust generalization to novel data points. We envision that TDC can facilitate algorithmic and scientific advances and considerably accelerate machine-learning model development, validation and transition into biomedical and clinical implementation. TDC is an open-science initiative available at this« less
  5. Abstract Molecular interaction networks are powerful resources for molecular discovery. They are increasingly used with machine learning methods to predict biologically meaningful interactions. While deep learning on graphs has dramatically advanced the prediction prowess, current graph neural network (GNN) methods are mainly optimized for prediction on the basis of direct similarity between interacting nodes. In biological networks, however, similarity between nodes that do not directly interact has proved incredibly useful in the last decade across a variety of interaction networks. Here, we present SkipGNN, a graph neural network approach for the prediction of molecular interactions. SkipGNN predicts molecular interactions bymore »not only aggregating information from direct interactions but also from second-order interactions, which we call skip similarity. In contrast to existing GNNs, SkipGNN receives neural messages from two-hop neighbors as well as immediate neighbors in the interaction network and non-linearly transforms the messages to obtain useful information for prediction. To inject skip similarity into a GNN, we construct a modified version of the original network, called the skip graph. We then develop an iterative fusion scheme that optimizes a GNN using both the skip graph and the original graph. Experiments on four interaction networks, including drug–drug, drug–target, protein–protein, and gene–disease interactions, show that SkipGNN achieves superior and robust performance. Furthermore, we show that unlike popular GNNs, SkipGNN learns biologically meaningful embeddings and performs especially well on noisy, incomplete interaction networks.« less
  6. Wren, Jonathan (Ed.)
    Abstract Summary Accurate prediction of drug–target interactions (DTI) is crucial for drug discovery. Recently, deep learning (DL) models for show promising performance for DTI prediction. However, these models can be difficult to use for both computer scientists entering the biomedical field and bioinformaticians with limited DL experience. We present DeepPurpose, a comprehensive and easy-to-use DL library for DTI prediction. DeepPurpose supports training of customized DTI prediction models by implementing 15 compound and protein encoders and over 50 neural architectures, along with providing many other useful features. We demonstrate state-of-the-art performance of DeepPurpose on several benchmark datasets. Availability and implementation »Supplementary information Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.« less
  7. Deep learning methods for graphs achieve remarkable performance on many node-level and graph-level prediction tasks. However, despite the proliferation of the methods and their success, prevailing Graph Neural Networks (GNNs) neglect subgraphs, rendering subgraph prediction tasks challenging to tackle in many impactful applications. Further, subgraph prediction tasks present several unique challenges: subgraphs can have non-trivial internal topology, but also carry a notion of position and external connectivity information relative to the underlying graph in which they exist. Here, we introduce SubGNN, a subgraph neural network to learn disentangled subgraph representations. We propose a novel subgraph routing mechanism that propagates neuralmore »messages between the subgraph's components and randomly sampled anchor patches from the underlying graph, yielding highly accurate subgraph representations. SubGNN specifies three channels, each designed to capture a distinct aspect of subgraph topology, and we provide empirical evidence that the channels encode their intended properties. We design a series of new synthetic and real-world subgraph datasets. Empirical results for subgraph classification on eight datasets show that SubGNN achieves considerable performance gains, outperforming strong baseline methods, including node-level and graph-level GNNs, by 19.8% over the strongest baseline. SubGNN performs exceptionally well on challenging biomedical datasets where subgraphs have complex topology and even comprise multiple disconnected components.« less
  8. Deep learning methods for graphs achieve remarkable performance across a variety of domains. However, recent findings indicate that small, unnoticeable perturbations of graph structure can catastrophically reduce performance of even the strongest and most popular Graph Neural Networks (GNNs). Here, we develop GNNGuard, a general algorithm to defend against a variety of training-time attacks that perturb the discrete graph structure. GNNGuard can be straight-forwardly incorporated into any GNN. Its core principle is to detect and quantify the relationship between the graph structure and node features, if one exists, and then exploit that relationship to mitigate negative effects of the attack.GNNGuardmore »learns how to best assign higher weights to edges connecting similar nodes while pruning edges between unrelated nodes. The revised edges allow for robust propagation of neural messages in the underlying GNN. GNNGuard introduces two novel components, the neighbor importance estimation, and the layer-wise graph memory, and we show empirically that both components are necessary for a successful defense. Across five GNNs, three defense methods, and five datasets,including a challenging human disease graph, experiments show that GNNGuard outperforms existing defense approaches by 15.3% on average. Remarkably, GNNGuard can effectively restore state-of-the-art performance of GNNs in the face of various adversarial attacks, including targeted and non-targeted attacks, and can defend against attacks on heterophily graphs.« less