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  1. Abstract

    The proliferation and miniaturization of portable electronics require energy‐storage devices that are simultaneously compact, flexible, and amenable to scalable manufacturing. In this work, mechanically flexible micro‐supercapacitor arrays are demonstrated via sequential high‐speed screen printing of conductive graphene electrodes and a high‐temperature hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) ionogel electrolyte. By combining the superlative dielectric properties of 2D hBN with the high ionic conductivity of ionic liquids, the resulting hBN ionogel electrolyte enables micro‐supercapacitors with exceptional areal capacitances that approach 1 mF cm−2. Unlike incumbent polymer‐based electrolytes, the high‐temperature stability of the hBN ionogel electrolyte implies that the printed micro‐supercapacitors can be operated at unprecedentedly high temperatures up to 180 °C. These elevated operating temperatures result in increased power densities that make these printed micro‐supercapacitors particularly promising for applications in harsh environments such as underground exploration, aviation, and electric vehicles. The combination of enhanced functionality in extreme conditions and high‐speed production via scalable additive manufacturing significantly broadens the technological phase space for on‐chip energy storage.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 15, 2024
  2. Abstract

    Despite significant progress in solution‐processing of 2D materials, it remains challenging to reliably print high‐performance semiconducting channels that can be efficiently modulated in a field‐effect transistor (FET). Herein, electrochemically exfoliated MoS2nanosheets are inkjet‐printed into ultrathin semiconducting channels, resulting in high on/off current ratios up to 103. The reported printing strategy is reliable and general for thin film channel fabrication even in the presence of the ubiquitous coffee‐ring effect. Statistical modeling analysis on the printed pattern profiles suggests that a spaced parallel printing approach can overcome the coffee‐ring effect during inkjet printing, resulting in uniform 2D flake percolation networks. The uniformity of the printed features allows the MoS2channel to be hundreds of micrometers long, which easily accommodates the typical inkjet printing resolution of tens of micrometers, thereby enabling fully printed FETs. As a proof of concept, FET water sensors are demonstrated using printed MoS2as the FET channel, and printed graphene as the electrodes and the sensing area. After functionalization of the sensing area, the printed water sensor shows a selective response to Pb2+in water down to 2 ppb. This work paves the way for additive nanomanufacturing of FET‐based sensors and related devices using 2D nanomaterials.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 15, 2024
  3. Abstract

    Electric vehicle batteries contain many internationally sourced critical minerals. Seeking a stable mineral supply, the US Inflation Reduction Act sets a market-value-based target for battery critical mineral content. In 2027, for an electric vehicle to be tax-credit eligible, 80% of the market value of critical minerals in its battery must be sourced domestically or from US free-trade partners. We determined that the target may be achievable for fully electric vehicles with nickel cobalt aluminium cathode batteries, but achieving the target with lithium iron phosphate and nickel cobalt manganese batteries would be challenging. We also note that a mass-based target could avoid some of the challenges posed by a market-value target, such as volatile market prices. We further conclude that the approach the Act has taken ignores the environmental effects of mining, non-critical minerals supply, support for recycling and definitions that avoid gamesmanship.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2024
  4. Abstract

    Solution‐processed graphene is a promising material for numerous high‐volume applications including structural composites, batteries, sensors, and printed electronics. However, the polydisperse nature of graphene dispersions following liquid‐phase exfoliation poses major manufacturing challenges, as incompletely exfoliated graphite flakes must be removed to achieve optimal properties and downstream performance. Incumbent separation schemes rely on centrifugation, which is highly energy‐intensive and limits scalable manufacturing. Here, cross‐flow filtration (CFF) is introduced as a centrifuge‐free processing method that improves the throughput of graphene separation by two orders of magnitude. By tuning membrane pore sizes between microfiltration and ultrafiltration length scales, CFF can also be used for efficient recovery of solvents and stabilizing polymers. In this manner, life cycle assessment and techno‐economic analysis reveal that CFF reduces greenhouse gas emissions, fossil energy usage, water consumption, and specific production costs of graphene manufacturing by 57%, 56%, 63%, and 72%, respectively. To confirm that CFF produces electronic‐grade graphene, CFF‐processed graphene nanosheets are formulated into printable inks, leading to state‐of‐the‐art thin‐film conductivities exceeding 104S m−1. This CFF methodology can likely be generalized to other van der Waals layered solids, thus enabling sustainable manufacturing of the diverse set of applications currently being pursued for 2D materials.

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  5. Abstract

    Glyphosate is a globally applied herbicide yet it has been relatively undetectable in‐field samples outside of gold‐standard techniques. Its presumed nontoxicity toward humans has been contested by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, while it has been detected in farmers’ urine, surface waters and crop residues. Rapid, on‐site detection of glyphosate is hindered by lack of field‐deployable and easy‐to‐use sensors that circumvent sample transportation to limited laboratories that possess the equipment needed for detection. Herein, the flavoenzyme, glycine oxidase, immobilized on platinum‐decorated laser‐induced graphene (LIG) is used for selective detection of glyphosate as it is a substrate for GlyOx. The LIG platform provides a scaffold for enzyme attachment while maintaining the electronic and surface properties of graphene. The sensor exhibits a linear range of 10–260µm, detection limit of 3.03µm, and sensitivity of 0.991 nAµm−1. The sensor shows minimal interference from the commonly used herbicides and insecticides: atrazine, 2,4‐dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, dicamba, parathion‐methyl, paraoxon‐methyl, malathion, chlorpyrifos, thiamethoxam, clothianidin, and imidacloprid. Sensor function is further tested in complex river water and crop residue fluids, which validate this platform as a scalable, direct‐write, and selective method of glyphosate detection for herbicide mapping and food analysis.

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  6. Abstract

    Printed 2D materials, derived from solution‐processed inks, offer scalable and cost‐effective routes to mechanically flexible optoelectronics. With micrometer‐scale control and broad processing latitude, aerosol‐jet printing (AJP) is of particular interest for all‐printed circuits and systems. Here, AJP is utilized to achieve ultrahigh‐responsivity photodetectors consisting of well‐aligned, percolating networks of semiconducting MoS2nanosheets and graphene electrodes on flexible polyimide substrates. Ultrathin (≈1.2 nm thick) and high‐aspect‐ratio (≈1 μm lateral size) MoS2nanosheets are obtained by electrochemical intercalation followed by megasonic atomization during AJP, which not only aerosolizes the inks but also further exfoliates the nanosheets. The incorporation of the high‐boiling‐point solvent terpineol into the MoS2ink is critical for achieving a highly aligned and flat thin‐film morphology following AJP as confirmed by grazing‐incidence wide‐angle X‐ray scattering and atomic force microscopy. Following AJP, curing is achieved with photonic annealing, which yields quasi‐ohmic contacts and photoactive channels with responsivities exceeding 103 A W−1that outperform previously reported all‐printed visible‐light photodetectors by over three orders of magnitude. Megasonic exfoliation coupled with properly designed AJP ink formulations enables the superlative optoelectronic properties of ultrathin MoS2nanosheets to be preserved and exploited for the scalable additive manufacturing of mechanically flexible optoelectronics.

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  7. Abstract

    Chemical sensors based on solution‐processed 2D nanomaterials represent an extremely attractive approach toward scalable and low‐cost devices. Through the implementation of real‐time impedance spectroscopy and development of a three‐element circuit model, redox exfoliated MoS2nanoflakes demonstrate an ultrasensitive empirical detection limit of NO2gas at 1 ppb, with an extrapolated ultimate detection limit approaching 63 ppt. This sensor construct reveals a more than three orders of magnitude improvement from conventional direct current sensing approaches as the traditionally dominant interflake interactions are bypassed in favor of selectively extracting intraflake doping effects. This same approach allows for an all solution‐processed, flexible 2D sensor to be fabricated on a polyimide substrate using a combination of graphene contacts and drop‐casted MoS2nanoflakes, exhibiting similar sensitivity limits. Finally, a thermal annealing strategy is used to explore the tunability of the nanoflake interactions and subsequent circuit model fit, with a demonstrated sensitivity improvement of 2× with thermal annealing at 200 °C.

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  8. Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 16, 2024
  9. Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 11, 2024
  10. Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2024