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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 17, 2024
  2. Kleene algebra with tests (KAT) is a foundational equational framework for reasoning about programs, which has found applications in program transformations, networking and compiler optimizations, among many other areas. In his seminal work, Kozen proved that KAT subsumes propositional Hoare logic, showing that one can reason about the (partial) correctness of while programs by means of the equational theory of KAT. In this work, we investigate the support that KAT provides for reasoning about incorrectness, instead, as embodied by O'Hearn's recently proposed incorrectness logic. We show that KAT cannot directly express incorrectness logic. The main reason for this limitation can be traced to the fact that KAT cannot express explicitly the notion of codomain, which is essential to express incorrectness triples. To address this issue, we study Kleene Algebra with Top and Tests (TopKAT), an extension of KAT with a top element. We show that TopKAT is powerful enough to express a codomain operation, to express incorrectness triples, and to prove all the rules of incorrectness logic sound. This shows that one can reason about the incorrectness of while-like programs by means of the equational theory of TopKAT. 
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  3. Formal reasoning about hashing-based probabilistic data structures often requires reasoning about random variables where when one variable gets larger (such as the number of elements hashed into one bucket), the others tend to be smaller (like the number of elements hashed into the other buckets). This is an example of negative dependence , a generalization of probabilistic independence that has recently found interesting applications in algorithm design and machine learning. Despite the usefulness of negative dependence for the analyses of probabilistic data structures, existing verification methods cannot establish this property for randomized programs. To fill this gap, we design LINA, a probabilistic separation logic for reasoning about negative dependence. Following recent works on probabilistic separation logic using separating conjunction to reason about the probabilistic independence of random variables, we use separating conjunction to reason about negative dependence. Our assertion logic features two separating conjunctions, one for independence and one for negative dependence. We generalize the logic of bunched implications (BI) to support multiple separating conjunctions, and provide a sound and complete proof system. Notably, the semantics for separating conjunction relies on a non-deterministic , rather than partial, operation for combining resources. By drawing on closure properties for negative dependence, our program logic supports a Frame-like rule for negative dependence and monotone operations. We demonstrate how LINA can verify probabilistic properties of hash-based data structures and balls-into-bins processes. 
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  4. null (Ed.)
    This paper presents λ-amor, a new type-theoretic framework for amortized cost analysis of higher-order functional programs and shows that existing type systems for cost analysis can be embedded in it. λ-amor introduces a new modal type for representing potentials – costs that have been accounted for, but not yet incurred, which are central to amortized analysis. Additionally, λ-amor relies on standard type-theoretic concepts like affineness, refinement types and an indexed cost monad. λ-amor is proved sound using a rather simple logical relation. We embed two existing type systems for cost analysis in λ-amor showing that, despite its simplicity, λ-amor can simulate cost analysis for different evaluation strategies (call-by-name and call-by-value), in different styles (effect-based and coeffect-based), and with or without amortization. One of the embeddings also implies that λ-amor is relatively complete for all terminating PCF programs. 
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