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  1. Abstract

    3D conformable electronic devices on freeform surfaces show superior performance to the conventional, planar ones. They represent a trend of future electronics and have witnessed exponential growth in various applications. However, their potential is largely limited by a lack of sophisticated fabrication techniques. To tackle this challenge, a new direct freeform laser (DFL) fabrication method enabled by a 5‐axis laser processing platform for directly fabricating 3D conformable electronics on targeted arbitrary surfaces is reported. Accordingly, representative laser‐induced graphene (LIG), metals, and metal oxides are successfully fabricated as high‐performance sensing and electrode materials from different material precursors on various types of substrates for applications in temperature/light/gas sensing, energy storage, and printed circuit board for circuit. Last but not the least, to demonstrate an application in smart homes, LIG‐based conformable strain sensors are fabricated and distributed in designated locations of an artificial tree. The distributed sensors have the capability of monitoring the wind speed and direction with the assistance of well‐trained machine‐learning models. This novel process will pave a new and general route to fabricating 3D conformable electronic devices, thus creating new opportunities in robotics, biomedical sensing, structural health, environmental monitoring, and Internet of Things applications.

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  2. The skin exhibits nonlinear mechanics, which is initially soft and stiffens rapidly as being stretched to prevent large deformation‐induced injuries. Developing skin‐interfaced bioelectronics with skin‐inspired nonlinear mechanical behavior, together with multiple other desired features (breathable, antibacterial, and sticky), is desirable yet challenging. Herein, this study reports the design, fabrication, and biomedical application of porous mesh bioelectronics that can simultaneously achieve these features. On the one hand, porous serpentine meshes of polyimide (PI) are designed and fabricated under the guidance of theoretical simulations to provide skin‐like nonlinear mechanics and high breathability. On the other hand, ultrasoft, sticky, and antibacterial polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is developed through epsilon polylysine (ε‐PL) modifications, which are currently lacking in the field. Here,ε‐PL‐modified PDMS is spray‐coated on PI meshes to form the core–shell structures without blocking their pores to offer ultrasoft, sticky, and antibacterial skin interfaces. And rationally designed porous hybrid meshes can not only retain skin‐like nonlinear mechanical properties but also enable the integration of both soft and hard bioelectronic components for various healthcare applications. As the exemplar example, this study integrates soft silver nanowires (AgNWs) based electrophysiological sensors and rigid commercial accelerometers on multifunctional porous meshes for concurrently monitoring heart electrical and mechanical functions to provide comprehensive information on the evolving heart status. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2024
  3. Direct laser scribing of molybdenum dioxide is enabled on soft elastomers to build Janus wearables and reshapable devices. 
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