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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 20, 2024
  2. Network pruning is a widely used technique to reduce computation cost and model size for deep neural networks. However, the typical three-stage pipeline (i.e., training, pruning, and retraining (fine-tuning)) significantly increases the overall training time. In this article, we develop a systematic weight-pruning optimization approach based on surrogate Lagrangian relaxation (SLR), which is tailored to overcome difficulties caused by the discrete nature of the weight-pruning problem. We further prove that our method ensures fast convergence of the model compression problem, and the convergence of the SLR is accelerated by using quadratic penalties. Model parameters obtained by SLR during the training phase are much closer to their optimal values as compared to those obtained by other state-of-the-art methods. We evaluate our method on image classification tasks using CIFAR-10 and ImageNet with state-of-the-art multi-layer perceptron based networks such as MLP-Mixer; attention-based networks such as Swin Transformer; and convolutional neural network based models such as VGG-16, ResNet-18, ResNet-50, ResNet-110, and MobileNetV2. We also evaluate object detection and segmentation tasks on COCO, the KITTI benchmark, and the TuSimple lane detection dataset using a variety of models. Experimental results demonstrate that our SLR-based weight-pruning optimization approach achieves a higher compression rate than state-of-the-art methods under the same accuracy requirement and also can achieve higher accuracy under the same compression rate requirement. Under classification tasks, our SLR approach converges to the desired accuracy × faster on both of the datasets. Under object detection and segmentation tasks, SLR also converges 2× faster to the desired accuracy. Further, our SLR achieves high model accuracy even at the hardpruning stage without retraining, which reduces the traditional three-stage pruning into a two-stage process. Given a limited budget of retraining epochs, our approach quickly recovers the model’s accuracy.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 30, 2024
  3. Hybrid traffic which involves both autonomous and human-driven vehicles would be the norm of the autonomous vehicles’ practice for a while. On the one hand, unlike autonomous vehicles, human-driven vehicles could exhibit sudden abnormal behaviors such as unpredictably switching to dangerous driving modes – putting its neighboring vehicles under risks; such undesired mode switching could arise from numbers of human driver factors, including fatigue, drunkenness, distraction, aggressiveness, etc. On the other hand, modern vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communication technologies enable the autonomous vehicles to efficiently and reliably share the scarce run-time information with each other [1]. In this paper, we propose, to the best of our knowledge, the first efficient algorithm that can (1) significantly improve trajectory prediction by effectively fusing the run-time information shared by surrounding autonomous vehicles, and can (2) accurately and quickly detect abnormal human driving mode switches or abnormal driving behavior with formal assurance without hurting human drivers’ privacy.

    To validate our proposed algorithm, we first evaluate our proposed trajectory predictor on NGSIM and Argoverse datasets and show that our proposed predictor outperforms the baseline methods. Then through extensive experiments on SUMO simulator, we show that our proposed algorithm has great detection performance in both highway and urban traffic. The best performance achieves detection rate of\(97.3\% \), average detection delay of 1.2s, and 0 false alarm.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 22, 2024
  4. With the development of sensing and communica- tion technologies in networked cyber-physical systems (CPSs), multi-agent reinforcement learning (MARL)-based methodolo- gies are integrated into the control process of physical systems and demonstrate prominent performance in a wide array of CPS domains, such as connected autonomous vehicles (CAVs). However, it remains challenging to mathematically characterize the improvement of the performance of CAVs with commu- nication and cooperation capability. When each individual autonomous vehicle is originally self-interest, we can not assume that all agents would cooperate naturally during the training process. In this work, we propose to reallocate the system’s total reward efficiently to motivate stable cooperation among autonomous vehicles. We formally define and quantify how to reallocate the system’s total reward to each agent under the proposed transferable utility game, such that communication- based cooperation among multi-agents increases the system’s total reward. We prove that Shapley value-based reward reallocation of MARL locates in the core if the transferable utility game is a convex game. Hence, the cooperation is stable and efficient and the agents should stay in the coalition or the cooperating group. We then propose a cooperative policy learning algorithm with Shapley value reward reallocation. In experiments, compared with several literature algorithms, we show the improvement of the mean episode system reward of CAV systems using our proposed algorithm. 
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