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  1. This paper presents \textit{OFHE}, an electro-optical accelerator designed to process Discretized TFHE (DTFHE) operations, which encrypt multi-bit messages and support homomorphic multiplications, lookup table operations and full-domain functional bootstrappings. While DTFHE is more efficient and versatile than other fully homomorphic encryption schemes, it requires 32-, 64-, and 128-bit polynomial multiplications, which can be time-consuming. Existing TFHE accelerators are not easily upgradable to support DTFHE operations due to limited datapaths, a lack of datapath bit-width reconfigurability, and power inefficiencies when processing FFT and inverse FFT (IFFT) kernels. Compared to prior TFHE accelerators, OFHE addresses these challenges by improving the DTFHE operation latency by 8.7\%, the DTFHE operation throughput by $57\%$, and the DTFHE operation throughput per Watt by $94\%$. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2025
  2. Trapped-Ion (TI) technology offers potential breakthroughs for Noisy Intermediate Scale Quantum (NISQ) computing. TI qubits offer extended coherence times and high gate fidelity, making them appealing for large-scale NISQ computers. Constructing such computers demands a distributed architecture connecting Quantum Charge Coupled Devices (QCCDs) via quantum matter-links and photonic switches. However, current distributed TI NISQ computers face hardware and system challenges. Entangling qubits across a photonic switch introduces significant latency, while existing compilers generate suboptimal mappings due to their unawareness of the interconnection topology. In this paper, we introduce TITAN, a large-scale distributed TI NISQ computer, which employs an innovative photonic interconnection design to reduce entanglement latency and an advanced partitioning and mapping algorithm to optimize matter-link communications. Our evaluations show that TITAN greatly enhances quantum application performance by 56.6% and fidelity by 19.7% compared to existing systems. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2025
  3. The carbon footprint associated with large language models (LLMs) is a significant concern, encompassing emissions from their training, inference, experimentation, and storage processes, including operational and embodied carbon emissions. An essential aspect is accurately estimating the carbon impact of emerging LLMs even before their training, which heavily relies on GPU usage. Existing studies have reported the carbon footprint of LLM training, but only one tool, mlco2, can predict the carbon footprint of new neural networks prior to physical training. However, mlco2 has several serious limitations. It cannot extend its estimation to dense or mixture-of-experts (MoE) LLMs, disregards critical architectural parameters, focuses solely on GPUs, and cannot model embodied carbon footprints. Addressing these gaps, we introduce \textit{\carb}, an end-to-end carbon footprint projection model designed for both dense and MoE LLMs. Compared to mlco2, \carb~significantly enhances the accuracy of carbon footprint estimations for various LLMs. The source code is released at \url{https://github.com/SotaroKaneda/MLCarbon}. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2025
  4. The widespread use of machine learning is changing our daily lives. Unfortunately, clients are often concerned about the privacy of their data when using machine learning-based applications. To address these concerns, the development of privacy-preserving machine learning (PPML) is essential. One promising approach is the use of fully homomorphic encryption (FHE) based PPML, which enables services to be performed on encrypted data without decryption. Although the speed of computationally expensive FHE operations can be significantly boosted by prior ASIC-based FHE accelerators, the performance of key-switching, the dominate primitive in various FHE operations, is seriously limited by their small bit-width datapaths and frequent matrix transpositions. In this paper, we present an electro-optical (EO) PPML accelerator, PriML, to accelerate FHE operations. Its 512-bit datapath supporting 510-bit residues greatly reduces the key-switching cost. We also create an in-scratchpad-memory transpose unit to fast transpose matrices. Compared to prior PPML accelerators, on average, PriML reduces the latency of various machine learning applications by > 94.4% and the energy consumption by > 95%. 
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  5. Abstract The exponential growth of information stored in data centers and computational power required for various data-intensive applications, such as deep learning and AI, call for new strategies to improve or move beyond the traditional von Neumann architecture. Recent achievements in information storage and computation in the optical domain, enabling energy-efficient, fast, and high-bandwidth data processing, show great potential for photonics to overcome the von Neumann bottleneck and reduce the energy wasted to Joule heating. Optically readable memories are fundamental in this process, and while light-based storage has traditionally (and commercially) employed free-space optics, recent developments in photonic integrated circuits (PICs) and optical nano-materials have opened the doors to new opportunities on-chip. Photonic memories have yet to rival their electronic digital counterparts in storage density; however, their inherent analog nature and ultrahigh bandwidth make them ideal for unconventional computing strategies. Here, we review emerging nanophotonic devices that possess memory capabilities by elaborating on their tunable mechanisms and evaluating them in terms of scalability and device performance. Moreover, we discuss the progress on large-scale architectures for photonic memory arrays and optical computing primarily based on memory performance. 
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  6. A photonic generative adversarial network that harnesses optoelectronic noises to generate handwritten numbers is demonstrated. 
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  7. null (Ed.)
    Genomics is the foundation of precision medicine, global food security and virus surveillance. Exact-match is one of the most essential operations widely used in almost every step of genomics such as alignment, assembly, annotation, and compression. Modern genomics adopts Ferragina-Manzini Index (FMIndex) augmenting space-efficient Burrows-Wheeler transform (BWT) with additional data structures to permit ultra-fast exact-match operations. However, FM-Index is notorious for its poor spatial locality and random memory access pattern. Prior works create GPU-, FPGA-, ASIC- and even process-in-memory (PIM)based accelerators to boost FM-Index search throughput. Though they achieve the state-of-the-art FM-Index search throughput, the same as all prior conventional accelerators, FM-Index PIMs process only one DNA symbol after each DRAM row activation, thereby suffering from poor memory bandwidth utilization. In this paper, we propose a hardware accelerator, EXMA, to enhance FM-Index search throughput. We first create a novel EXMA table with a multi-task-learning (MTL)-based index to process multiple DNA symbols with each DRAM row activation. We then build an accelerator to search over an EXMA table. We propose 2-stage scheduling to increase the cache hit rate of our accelerator. We introduce dynamic page policy to improve the row buffer hit rate of DRAM main memory. We also present CHAIN compression to reduce the data structure size of EXMA tables. Compared to state-of-the-art FM-Index PIMs, EXMA improves search throughput by 4.9 ×, and enhances search throughput per Watt by 4.8×. 
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