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  1. Abstract The exponential growth of information stored in data centers and computational power required for various data-intensive applications, such as deep learning and AI, call for new strategies to improve or move beyond the traditional von Neumann architecture. Recent achievements in information storage and computation in the optical domain, enabling energy-efficient, fast, and high-bandwidth data processing, show great potential for photonics to overcome the von Neumann bottleneck and reduce the energy wasted to Joule heating. Optically readable memories are fundamental in this process, and while light-based storage has traditionally (and commercially) employed free-space optics, recent developments in photonic integrated circuits (PICs) and optical nano-materials have opened the doors to new opportunities on-chip. Photonic memories have yet to rival their electronic digital counterparts in storage density; however, their inherent analog nature and ultrahigh bandwidth make them ideal for unconventional computing strategies. Here, we review emerging nanophotonic devices that possess memory capabilities by elaborating on their tunable mechanisms and evaluating them in terms of scalability and device performance. Moreover, we discuss the progress on large-scale architectures for photonic memory arrays and optical computing primarily based on memory performance.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 16, 2023
  2. A photonic generative adversarial network that harnesses optoelectronic noises to generate handwritten numbers is demonstrated.
  3. Genomics is the foundation of precision medicine, global food security and virus surveillance. Exact-match is one of the most essential operations widely used in almost every step of genomics such as alignment, assembly, annotation, and compression. Modern genomics adopts Ferragina-Manzini Index (FMIndex) augmenting space-efficient Burrows-Wheeler transform (BWT) with additional data structures to permit ultra-fast exact-match operations. However, FM-Index is notorious for its poor spatial locality and random memory access pattern. Prior works create GPU-, FPGA-, ASIC- and even process-in-memory (PIM)based accelerators to boost FM-Index search throughput. Though they achieve the state-of-the-art FM-Index search throughput, the same as all prior conventional accelerators, FM-Index PIMs process only one DNA symbol after each DRAM row activation, thereby suffering from poor memory bandwidth utilization. In this paper, we propose a hardware accelerator, EXMA, to enhance FM-Index search throughput. We first create a novel EXMA table with a multi-task-learning (MTL)-based index to process multiple DNA symbols with each DRAM row activation. We then build an accelerator to search over an EXMA table. We propose 2-stage scheduling to increase the cache hit rate of our accelerator. We introduce dynamic page policy to improve the row buffer hit rate of DRAM main memory. We also present CHAINmore »compression to reduce the data structure size of EXMA tables. Compared to state-of-the-art FM-Index PIMs, EXMA improves search throughput by 4.9 ×, and enhances search throughput per Watt by 4.8×.« less
  4. A scalp-recording electroencephalography (EEG)-based brain-computer interface (BCI) system can greatly improve the quality of life for people who suffer from motor disabilities. Deep neural networks consisting of multiple convolutional, LSTM and fully-connected layers are created to decode EEG signals to maximize the human intention recognition accuracy. However, prior FPGA, ASIC, ReRAM and photonic accelerators cannot maintain sufficient battery lifetime when processing realtime intention recognition. In this paper, we propose an ultra-low-power photonic accelerator, MindReading, for human intention recognition by only low bit-width addition and shift operations. Compared to prior neural network accelerators, to maintain the real-time processing throughput, MindReading reduces the power consumption by 62.7% and improves the throughput per Watt by 168%.