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  1. In this paper, we consider transmission scheduling in a status update system, where updates are generated periodically and transmitted over a Gilbert-Elliott fading channel. The goal is to minimize the long-run average age of information (AoI) under a long-run average energy constraint. We consider two practical cases to obtain channel state information (CSI): (i) without channel sensing and (ii) with delayed channel sensing. For (i), CSI is revealed by the feedback (ACK/NACK) of a transmission, but when no transmission occurs, CSI is not revealed. Thus, we have to balance tradeoffs across energy, AoI, channel exploration, and channel exploitation. The problem is formulated as a constrained partially observable Markov decision process (POMDP). We show that the optimal policy is a randomized mixture of no more than two stationary deterministic policies each of which is of a threshold-type in the belief on the channel. For (ii), (delayed) CSI is available via channel sensing. Then, the tradeoff is only between the AoI and energy. The problem is formulated as a constrained MDP. The optimal policy is shown to have a similar structure as in (i) but with an AoI associated threshold. With these, we develop an optimal structure-aware algorithm for each case. 
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  2. Massive multiple-input multiple-output (mMIMO) technology uses a very large number of antennas at base stations to significantly increase efficient use of the wireless spectrum. Thus, mMIMO is considered an essential part of 5G and beyond. However, developing a scalable and reliable mMIMO system is an extremely challenging task, significantly hampering the ability of the research community to research nextgeneration networks. This "research bottleneck" motivated us to develop a deployable experimental mMIMO platform to enable research across many areas. We also envision that this platform could unleash novel collaborations between communications, computing, and machine learning researchers to completely rethink next-generation networks. 
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  3. null (Ed.)
    In this paper, we consider a status update system, in which update packets are sent to the destination via a wireless medium that allows for multiple rates, where a higher rate also naturally corresponds to a higher error probability. The data freshness is measured using age of information, which is defined as the age of the recent update at the destination. A packet that is transmitted with a higher rate, will encounter a shorter delay and a higher error probability. Thus, the choice of the transmission rate affects the age at the destination. In this paper, we design a low-complexity scheduler that selects between two different transmission rate and error probability pairs to be used at each transmission epoch. This problem can be cast as a Markov Decision Process. We show that there exists a threshold-type policy that is age-optimal. More importantly, we show that the objective function is quasi-convex or non-decreasing in the threshold, based on the system parameters values. This enables us to devise a low-complexity algorithm to minimize the age. These results reveal an interesting phenomenon: While choosing the rate with minimum mean delay is delay-optimal, this does not necessarily minimize the age. 
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  4. null (Ed.)
    In this paper, we study the problem of minimizing the age of information when a source can transmit status updates over two heterogeneous channels. Our work is motivated by recent developments in 5G mmWave technology, where transmissions may occur over an unreliable but fast (e.g., mmWave) channel or a slow reliable (e.g., sub-6GHz) channel. The unreliable channel is modeled as a time-correlated Gilbert-Elliot channel, where information can be transmitted at a high rate when the channel is in the "ON" state. The reliable channel provides a deterministic but lower data rate. The scheduling strategy determines the channel to be used for transmission with the aim to minimize the time-average age of information (AoI). The optimal scheduling problem is formulated as a Markov Decision Process (MDP), which in our setting poses some significant challenges because e.g., supermodularity does not hold for part of the state space. We show that there exists a multi-dimensional threshold-based scheduling policy that is optimal for minimizing the age. A low-complexity bisection algorithm is further devised to compute the optimal thresholds. Numerical simulations are provided to compare different scheduling policies. 
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  5. null (Ed.)