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  1. This paper explores reconfigurable intelligent surfaces (RIS) for mitigating cross-system interference in spectrum sharing applications. Unlike conventional reflect-only RIS that can only adjust the phase of the incoming signal, a hybrid RIS is considered that can configure the phase and modulus of the impinging signal by absorbing part of the signal energy. We investigate two spectrum sharing scenarios: (1) Spectral coexistence of radar and communication systems, where a convex optimization problem is formulated to minimize the Frobenius norm of the channel matrix from the communication base station to the radar receiver, and (2) Spectrum sharing in device-to-device (D2D) communications, where a max-min scheme that optimizes the worst-case signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) among the D2D links is formulated, and then solved through fractional programming. Numerical results show that with a sufficient number of elements, the hybrid RIS can in many cases completely eliminate the interference, unlike a conventional non-absorptive RIS. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 4, 2024
  2. Reconfigurable intelligent surface (RIS) technology is a promising approach being considered for future wireless communications due to its ability to control signal propagation with low-cost elements. This paper explores the use of an RIS for clutter mitigation and target detection in radar systems. Unlike conventional reflect-only RIS, which can only adjust the phase of the reflected signal, or active RIS, which can also amplify the reflected signal at the cost of significantly higher complexity, noise, and power consumption, we exploit hybrid RIS that can configure both the phase and modulus of the impinging signal by absorbing part of the signal energy. Such RIS can be considered as a compromise solution between conventional reflect-only and active RIS in terms of complexity, power consumption, and degrees of freedoms (DoFs). We consider two clutter suppression scenarios: with and without knowledge of the target range cell. The RIS design is formulated by minimizing the received clutter echo energy when there is no information regarding the potential target range cell. This turns out to be a convex problem and can be efficiently solved. On the other hand, when target range cell information is available, we maximize the received signal-to-noise-plus-interference ratio (SINR). The resulting non-convex optimization problem is solved through fractional programming algorithms. Numerical results are presented to demonstrate the performance of the proposed hybrid RIS in comparison with conventional RIS in clutter suppression for target detection. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2024
  3. Non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) has become a promising technology for next-generation wireless communications systems due to its capability to provide access for multiple users on the same resource. In this paper, we consider an uplink power-domain NOMA system aided by a reconfigurable intelligent surface (RIS) in the presence of a jammer that aims to maximize its interference on the base station (BS) uplink receiver. We consider two kinds of RISs, a regular RIS whose elements can only change the phase of the incoming wave, and an RIS whose elements can also attenuate the incoming wave. Our aim is to minimize the total power transmitted by the user terminals under quality-of-service constraints by controlling both the propagation from the users and the jammer to the BS with help of the RIS. The resulting objective function and constraints are both non-linear and non-convex, so we address this problem using numerical optimization. Our numerical results show that the RIS can help to dramatically reduce the per user required transmit power in an interference-limited scenario. 
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  4. In this paper, we investigate the potential of employing reconfigurable intelligent surface (RIS) in integrated sensing and communication (ISAC) systems. In particular, we consider an RIS-assisted ISAC system in which a multi-antenna base station (BS) simultaneously performs multi-user multi-input single-output (MU-MISO) communication and target detection. We aim to jointly design the transmit beamforming and receive filter of the BS, and the reflection coefficients of the RIS to maximize the sum-rate of the communication users, while satisfying a worst-case radar output signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), the transmit power constraint, and the unit modulus property of the reflecting coefficients. An efficient iterative algorithm based on fractional programming (FP), majorization-minimization (MM), and alternative direction method of multipliers (ADMM) is developed to solve the complicated non-convex problem. Simulation results verify the advantage of the proposed RIS-assisted ISAC scheme and the effectiveness of the developed algorithm. 
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  5. Optimally extracting the advantages available from reconfigurable intelligent surfaces (RISs) in wireless communications systems requires estimation of the channels to and from the RIS. The process of determining these channels is complicated when the RIS is composed of passive elements without any sensing or data processing capabilities, and thus, the channels must be estimated indirectly by a noncolocated device, typically a controlling base station (BS). In this article, we examine channel estimation for passive RIS-based systems from a fundamental viewpoint. We study various possible channel models and the identifiability of the models as a function of the available pilot data and behavior of the RIS during training. In particular, we will consider situations with and without line-of-sight propagation, single-antenna and multi-antenna configurations for the users and BS, correlated and sparse channel models, single-carrier and wideband orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) scenarios, availability of direct links between the users and BS, exploitation of prior information, as well as a number of other special cases. We further conduct simulations of representative algorithms and comparisons of their performance for various channel models using the relevant Cramér-Rao bounds. 
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  6. Reconfigurable intelligent surface (RIS) technology has recently emerged as a spectral- and cost-efficient approach for wireless communications systems. However, existing hand-engineered schemes for passive beamforming design and optimization of RIS, such as the alternating optimization (AO) approaches, require a high computational complexity, especially for multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) systems. To over-come this challenge, we propose a low-complexity unsupervised learning scheme, referred to as learning-phase-shift neural net-work (LPSNet), to efficiently find the solution to the spectral efficiency maximization problem in RIS-aided MIMO systems. In particular, the proposed LPSNet has an optimized input structure and requires a small number of layers and nodes to produce efficient phase shifts for the RIS. Simulation results for a 16 × 2 MIMO system assisted by an RIS with 40 elements show that the LPSNet achieves 97.25% of the SE provided by the AO counterpart with more than a 95% reduction in complexity. 
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