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  1. Abstract

    We complete the publication of all microlensing planets (and “possible planets”) identified by the uniform approach of the KMT AnomalyFinder system in the 21 KMT subprime fields during the 2019 observing season, namely, KMT-2019-BLG-0298, KMT-2019-BLG-1216, KMT-2019-BLG-2783, OGLE-2019-BLG-0249, and OGLE-2019-BLG-0679 (planets), as well as OGLE-2019-BLG-0344 and KMT-2019-BLG-0304 (possible planets). The five planets have mean log mass ratio measurements of (−2.6, −3.6, −2.5, −2.2, −2.3), median mass estimates of (1.81, 0.094, 1.16, 7.12, 3.34)MJup, and median distance estimates of (6.7, 2.7, 5.9, 6.4, 5.6) kpc, respectively. The main scientific interest of these planets is that they complete the AnomalyFinder sample for 2019, which has a total of 25 planets that are likely to enter the statistical sample. We find statistical consistency with the previously published 33 planets from the 2018 AnomalyFinder analysis according to an ensemble of five tests. Of the 58 planets from 2018–2019, 23 were newly discovered by AnomalyFinder. Within statistical precision, half of the planets have caustic crossings, while half do not; an equal number of detected planets result from major- and minor-image light-curve perturbations; and an equal number come from KMT prime fields versus subprime fields.

     
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  2. Abstract

    We present the analysis of three more planets from the KMTNet 2021 microlensing season. KMT-2021-BLG-0119Lb is a ∼6MJupplanet orbiting an early M dwarf or a K dwarf, KMT-2021-BLG-0192Lb is a ∼2MNepplanet orbiting an M dwarf, and KMT-2021-BLG-2294Lb is a ∼1.25MNepplanet orbiting a very-low-mass M dwarf or a brown dwarf. These by-eye planet detections provide an important comparison sample to the sample selected with the AnomalyFinder algorithm, and in particular, KMT-2021-BLG-2294 is a case of a planet detected by eye but not by algorithm. KMT-2021-BLG-2294Lb is part of a population of microlensing planets around very-low-mass host stars that spans the full range of planet masses, in contrast to the planet population at ≲0.1 au, which shows a strong preference for small planets.

     
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  3. ABSTRACT

    We report the complete statistical planetary sample from the prime fields (Γ ≥ 2 h−1) of the 2019 Korea Microlensing Telescope Network (KMTNet) microlensing survey. We develop the optimized KMTNet AnomalyFinder algorithm and apply it to the 2019 KMTNet prime fields. We find a total of 13 homogeneously selected planets and report the analysis of three planetary events, KMT-2019-BLG-(1042,1552,2974). The planet–host mass ratios, q, for the three planetary events are 6.34 × 10−4, 4.89 × 10−3, and 6.18 × 10−4, respectively. A Bayesian analysis indicates the three planets are all cold giant planets beyond the snow line of their host stars. The 13 planets are basically uniform in log q over the range −5.0 < log q < −1.5. This result suggests that the planets below qbreak = 1.7 × 10−4 proposed by the MOA-II survey may be more common than previously believed. This work is an early component of a large project to determine the KMTNet mass-ratio function, and the whole sample of 2016–2019 KMTNet events should contain about 120 planets.

     
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  4. ABSTRACT

    Follow-up observations of high-magnification gravitational microlensing events can fully exploit their intrinsic sensitivity to detect extrasolar planets, especially those with small mass ratios. To make followup observations more uniform and efficient, we develop a system, HighMagFinder, to automatically alert possible ongoing high-magnification events based on the real-time data from the Korea Microlensing Telescope Network (KMTNet). We started a new phase of follow-up observations with the help of HighMagFinder in 2021. Here we report the discovery of two planets in high-magnification microlensing events, KMT-2021-BLG-0171 and KMT-2021-BLG-1689, which were identified by the HighMagFinder. We find that both events suffer the ‘central-resonant’ caustic degeneracy. The planet-host mass-ratio is q ∼ 4.7 × 10−5 or q ∼ 2.2 × 10−5 for KMT-2021-BLG-0171, and q ∼ 2.5 × 10−4 or q ∼ 1.8 × 10−4 for KMT-2021-BLG-1689. Together with two other events, four cases that suffer such degeneracy have been discovered in the 2021 season alone, indicating that the degenerate solutions may have been missed in some previous studies. We also propose a quantitative factor to weight the probability of each solution from the phase space. The resonant interpretations for the two events are disfavoured under this consideration. This factor can be included in future statistical studies to weight degenerate solutions.

     
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  5. Aims. We inspect the four microlensing events KMT-2021-BLG-1968, KMT-2021-BLG-2010, KMT-2022-BLG-0371, and KMT-2022-BLG-1013, for which the light curves exhibit partially covered short-term central anomalies. We conduct detailed analyses of the events with the aim of revealing the nature of the anomalies. Methods. We tested various models that can explain the anomalies of the individual events, including the binary-lens (2L1S) and binary-source (1L2S) interpretations. Under the 2L1S interpretation, we thoroughly inspected the parameter space to determine the existence of degenerate solutions, and if they existed, we tested whether the degeneracy could be resolved. Results. We find that the anomalies in KMT-2021-BLG-2010 and KMT-2022-BLG-1013 are uniquely defined by planetary-lens interpretations with planet-to-host mass ratios of q ~ 2.8 × 10 −3 and ~1.6 × 10 −3 , respectively. For KMT-2022-BLG-0371, a planetary solution with a mass ratio q ~ 4 × 10 −4 is strongly favored over the other three degenerate 2L1S solutions with different mass ratios based on the χ 2 and relative proper motion arguments, and a 1L2S solution is clearly ruled out. For KMT-2021-BLG-1968, on the other hand, we find that the anomaly can be explained either by a planetary or a binary-source interpretation, making it difficult to firmly identify the nature of the anomaly. From the Bayesian analyses of the identified planetary events, we estimate that the masses of the planet and host are ( M p / M J , M h / M ⊙ ) = (1.07 −0.68 +1.15 , 0.37 −0.23 +0.40 ), (0.26 −0.11 +0.13 , 0.63 −0.28 +0.32 ), and (0.31 −0.16 +0.46 , 0.18 −0.10 +0.28 ) for KMT-2021-BLG-2010L, KMT-2022-BLG-0371L, and KMT-2022-BLG-1013L, respectively. 
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  6. Aims. We investigate the data collected by the high-cadence microlensing surveys during the 2022 season in search of planetary signals appearing in the light curves of microlensing events. From this search, we find that the lensing event MOA-2022-BLG-249 exhibits a brief positive anomaly that lasted for about one day, with a maximum deviation of ~0.2 mag from a single-source, single-lens model. Methods. We analyzed the light curve under the two interpretations of the anomaly: one originated by a low-mass companion to the lens (planetary model) and the other originated by a faint companion to the source (binary-source model). Results. We find that the anomaly is better explained by the planetary model than the binary-source model. We identified two solutions rooted in the inner-outer degeneracy and for both of them, the estimated planet-to-host mass ratio, q ~ 8 × 10 −5 , is very small. With the constraints provided by the microlens parallax and the lower limit on the Einstein radius, as well as the blend-flux constraint, we find that the lens is a planetary system, in which a super-Earth planet, with a mass of (4.83 ± 1.44) Μ ⊕ , orbits a low-mass host star, with a mass of (0.18 ± 0.05) M ⊙ , lying in the Galactic disk at a distance of (2.00 ± 0.42) kpc. The planet detection demonstrates the elevated microlensing sensitivity of the current high-cadence lensing surveys to low-mass planets. 
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  7. ABSTRACT We present the observations and analysis of a high-magnification microlensing planetary event, KMT-2022-BLG-0440, for which the weak and short-lived planetary signal was covered by both the KMTNet survey and follow-up observations. The binary-lens models with a central caustic provide the best fits, with a planet/host mass ratio, q = 0.75–1.00 × 10−4 at 1σ. The binary-lens models with a resonant caustic and a brown-dwarf mass ratio are both excluded by Δχ2 > 70. The binary-source model can fit the anomaly well but is rejected by the ‘colour argument’ on the second source. From Bayesian analyses, it is estimated that the host star is likely a K or M dwarf located in the Galactic disc, the planet probably has a Neptune-mass, and the projected planet-host separation is $1.9^{+0.6}_{-0.7}$ or $4.6^{+1.4}_{-1.7}$  au, subject to the close/wide degeneracy. This is the third q < 10−4 planet from a high-magnification planetary signal (A ≳ 65). Together with another such planet, KMT-2021-BLG-0171Lb, the ongoing follow-up program for the KMTNet high-magnification events has demonstrated its ability to detect high-magnification planetary signals for q < 10−4 planets, which are challenging for the current microlensing surveys. 
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  8. Aims. We systematically inspected the microlensing data acquired by the KMTNet survey during the previous seasons in order to find anomalous lensing events for which the anomalies in the lensing light curves cannot be explained by the usual binary-lens or binary-source interpretations. Methods. From the inspection, we find that interpreting the three lensing events OGLE-2018-BLG-0584, KMT-2018-BLG-2119, and KMT-2021-BLG-1122 requires four-body (lens+source) models, in which either both the lens and source are binaries (2L2S event) or the lens is a triple system (3L1S event). Following the analyses of the 2L2S events presented in our previous work, here we present the 3L1S analysis of the KMT-2021-BLG-1122. Results. It is found that the lens of the event KMT-2021-BLG-1122 is composed of three masses, in which the projected separations (normalized to the angular Einstein radius) and mass ratios between the lens companions and the primary are ( s 2 ,  q 2 )∼(1.4, 0.53) and ( s 3 ,  q 3 )∼(1.6, 0.24). By conducting a Bayesian analysis, we estimate that the masses of the individual lens components are ( M 1 ,  M 2 ,  M 3 )∼(0.47  M ⊙ , 0.24  M ⊙ , 0.11  M ⊙ ). The companions are separated in projection from the primary by ( a ⊥, 2 ,  a ⊥, 3 )∼(3.5, 4.0) AU. The lens of KMT-2018-BLG-2119 is the first triple stellar system detected via microlensing. 
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  9. Abstract We analyze the MOA-2020-BLG-208 gravitational microlensing event and present the discovery and characterization of a new planet, MOA-2020-BLG-208Lb, with an estimated sub-Saturn mass. With a mass ratio q = 3.17 − 0.26 + 0.28 × 10 − 4 , the planet lies near the peak of the mass-ratio function derived by the MOA collaboration and near the edge of expected sample sensitivity. For these estimates we provide results using two mass-law priors: one assuming that all stars have an equal planet-hosting probability, and the other assuming that planets are more likely to orbit around more massive stars. In the first scenario, we estimate that the lens system is likely to be a planet of mass m planet = 46 − 24 + 42 M ⊕ and a host star of mass M host = 0.43 − 0.23 + 0.39 M ⊙ , located at a distance D L = 7.49 − 1.13 + 0.99 kpc . For the second scenario, we estimate m planet = 69 − 34 + 37 M ⊕ , M host = 0.66 − 0.32 + 0.35 M ⊙ , and D L = 7.81 − 0.93 + 0.93 kpc . The planet has a projected separation as a fraction of the Einstein ring radius s = 1.3807 − 0.0018 + 0.0018 . As a cool sub-Saturn-mass planet, this planet adds to a growing collection of evidence for revised planetary formation models. 
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  10. ABSTRACT We present K2-2016-BLG-0005Lb, a densely sampled, planetary binary caustic-crossing microlensing event found from a blind search of data gathered from Campaign 9 of the Kepler K2 mission (K2C9). K2-2016-BLG-0005Lb is the first bound microlensing exoplanet discovered from space-based data. The event has caustic entry and exit points that are resolved in the K2C9 data, enabling the lens-source relative proper motion to be measured. We have fitted a binary microlens model to the Kepler data and to simultaneous observations from multiple ground-based surveys. Whilst the ground-based data only sparsely sample the binary caustic, they provide a clear detection of parallax that allows us to break completely the microlensing mass-position-velocity degeneracy and measure the planet’s mass directly. We find a host mass of 0.58 ± 0.04 M⊙ and a planetary mass of 1.1 ± 0.1 MJ. The system lies at a distance of 5.2 ± 0.2 kpc from Earth towards the Galactic bulge, more than twice the distance of the previous most distant planet found by Kepler. The sky-projected separation of the planet from its host is found to be 4.2 ± 0.3 au which, for circular orbits, deprojects to a host separation $a = 4.4^{+1.9}_{-0.4}$ au and orbital period $P = 13^{+9}_{-2}$ yr. This makes K2-2016-BLG-0005Lb a close Jupiter analogue orbiting a low-mass host star. According to current planet formation models, this system is very close to the host mass threshold below which Jupiters are not expected to form. Upcoming space-based exoplanet microlensing surveys by NASA’s Nancy Grace Roman Space Telescope and, possibly, ESA’s Euclid mission, will provide demanding tests of current planet formation models. 
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