skip to main content


Search for: All records

Award ID contains: 2109922

Note: When clicking on a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) number, you will be taken to an external site maintained by the publisher. Some full text articles may not yet be available without a charge during the embargo (administrative interval).
What is a DOI Number?

Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. Their policies may differ from this site.

  1. Recent work has reemphasized the importance of cardinality estimates for query optimization. While new techniques have continuously improved in accuracy over time, they still generally allow for under-estimates which often lead optimizers to make overly optimistic decisions. This can be very costly for expensive queries. An alternative approach to estimation is cardinality bounding, also called pessimistic cardinality estimation, where the cardinality estimator provides guaranteed upper bounds of the true cardinality. By never underestimating, this approach allows the optimizer to avoid potentially inefficient plans. However, existing pessimistic cardinality estimators are not yet practical: they use very limited statistics on the data, and cannot handle predicates. In this paper, we introduce SafeBound, the first practical system for generating cardinality bounds. SafeBound builds on a recent theoretical work that uses degree sequences on join attributes to compute cardinality bounds, extends this framework with predicates, introduces a practical compression method for the degree sequences, and implements an efficient inference algorithm. Across four workloads, SafeBound achieves up to 80% lower end-to-end runtimes than PostgreSQL, and is on par or better than state of the art ML-based estimators and pessimistic cardinality estimators, by improving the runtime of the expensive queries. It also saves up to 500x in query planning time, and uses up to 6.8x less space compared to state of the art cardinality estimation methods. 
    more » « less
  2. Tensor programs often need to process large tensors (vectors, matrices, or higher order tensors) that require a specialized storage format for their memory layout. Several such layouts have been proposed in the literature, such as the Coordinate Format, the Compressed Sparse Row format, and many others, that were especially designed to optimally store tensors with specific sparsity properties. However, existing tensor processing systems require specialized extensions in order to take advantage of every new storage format. In this paper we describe a system that allows users to define flexible storage formats in a declarative tensor query language, similar to the language used by the tensor program. The programmer only needs to write storage mappings, which describe, in a declarative way, how the tensors are laid out in main memory. Then, we describe a cost-based optimizer that optimizes the tensor program for the specific memory layout. We demonstrate empirically significant performance improvements compared to state-of-the-art tensor processing systems. 
    more » « less
  3. We propose quasi-stable coloring , an approximate version of stable coloring. Stable coloring, also called color refinement, is a well-studied technique in graph theory for classifying vertices, which can be used to build compact, lossless representations of graphs. However, its usefulness is limited due to its reliance on strict symmetries. Real data compresses very poorly using color refinement. We propose the first, to our knowledge, approximate color refinement scheme, which we call quasi-stable coloring. By using approximation, we alleviate the need for strict symmetry, and allow for a tradeoff between the degree of compression and the accuracy of the representation. We study three applications: Linear Programming, Max-Flow, and Betweenness Centrality, and provide theoretical evidence in each case that a quasi-stable coloring can lead to good approximations on the reduced graph. Next, we consider how to compute a maximal quasi-stable coloring: we prove that, in general, this problem is NP-hard, and propose a simple, yet effective algorithm based on heuristics. Finally, we evaluate experimentally the quasi-stable coloring technique on several real graphs and applications, comparing with prior approximation techniques. 
    more » « less
  4. SHAP explanations are a popular feature-attribution mechanism for explainable AI. They use game-theoretic notions to measure the influence of individual features on the prediction of a machine learning model. Despite a lot of recent interest from both academia and industry, it is not known whether SHAP explanations of common machine learning models can be computed efficiently. In this paper, we establish the complexity of computing the SHAP explanation in three important settings. First, we consider fully-factorized data distributions, and show that the complexity of computing the SHAP explanation is the same as the complexity of computing the expected value of the model. This fully-factorized setting is often used to simplify the SHAP computation, yet our results show that the computation can be intractable for commonly used models such as logistic regression. Going beyond fully-factorized distributions, we show that computing SHAP explanations is already intractable for a very simple setting: computing SHAP explanations of trivial classifiers over naive Bayes distributions. Finally, we show that even computing SHAP over the empirical distribution is #P-hard. 
    more » « less
  5. Integrity constraints such as functional dependencies (FD) and multi-valueddependencies (MVD) are fundamental in database schema design. Likewise,probabilistic conditional independences (CI) are crucial for reasoning aboutmultivariate probability distributions. The implication problem studies whethera set of constraints (antecedents) implies another constraint (consequent), andhas been investigated in both the database and the AI literature, under theassumption that all constraints hold exactly. However, many applications todayconsider constraints that hold only approximately. In this paper we define anapproximate implication as a linear inequality between the degree ofsatisfaction of the antecedents and consequent, and we study the relaxationproblem: when does an exact implication relax to an approximate implication? Weuse information theory to define the degree of satisfaction, and prove severalresults. First, we show that any implication from a set of data dependencies(MVDs+FDs) can be relaxed to a simple linear inequality with a factor at mostquadratic in the number of variables; when the consequent is an FD, the factorcan be reduced to 1. Second, we prove that there exists an implication betweenCIs that does not admit any relaxation; however, we prove that everyimplication between CIs relaxes "in the limit". Then, we show that theimplication problem for differential constraints in market basket analysis alsoadmits a relaxation with a factor equal to 1. Finally, we show how some of theresults in the paper can be derived using the I-measure theory, which relatesbetween information theoretic measures and set theory. Our results recover, andsometimes extend, previously known results about the implication problem: theimplication of MVDs and FDs can be checked by considering only 2-tuplerelations. 
    more » « less
  6. The query containment problem is a fundamental algorithmic problem in data management. While this problem is well understood under set semantics, it is by far less understood under bag semantics. In particular, it is a long-standing open question whether or not the conjunctive query containment problem under bag semantics is decidable. We unveil tight connections between information theory and the conjunctive query containment under bag semantics. These connections are established using information inequalities, which are considered to be the laws of information theory. Our first main result asserts that deciding the validity of a generalization of information inequalities is many-one equivalent to the restricted case of conjunctive query containment in which the containing query is acyclic; thus, either both these problems are decidable or both are undecidable. Our second main result identifies a new decidable case of the conjunctive query containment problem under bag semantics. Specifically, we give an exponential-time algorithm for conjunctive query containment under bag semantics, provided the containing query is chordal and admits a simple junction tree. 
    more » « less