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  1. In digital pathology, the spatial context of cells is important for cell classification, cancer diagnosis and prognosis. To model such complex cell context, however, is challenging. Cells form different mixtures, lineages, clusters and holes. To model such structural patterns in a learnable fashion, we introduce several mathematical tools from spatial statistics and topological data analysis. We incorporate such structural descriptors into a deep generative model as both conditional inputs and a differentiable loss. This way, we are able to generate high quality multi-class cell layouts for the first time. We show that the topology-rich cell layouts can be used for data augmentation and improve the performance of downstream tasks such as cell classification. 
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  2. Noisy labels can significantly affect the performance of deep neural networks (DNNs). In medical image segmentation tasks, annotations are error-prone due to the high demand in annotation time and in the annotators' expertise. Existing methods mostly tackle label noise in classification tasks. Their independent-noise assumptions do not fit label noise in segmentation task. In this paper, we propose a novel noise model for segmentation problems that encodes spatial correlation and bias, which are prominent in segmentation annotations. Further, to mitigate such label noise, we propose a label correction method to recover true label progressively. We provide theoretical guarantees of the correctness of the proposed method. Experiments show that our approach outperforms current state-of-the-art methods on both synthetic and real-world noisy annotations. 
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  3. Overconfidence is a common issue for deep neural networks, limiting their deployment in real-world applications. To better estimate confidence, existing methods mostly focus on fully-supervised scenarios and rely on training labels. In this paper, we propose the first confidence estimation method for a semi-supervised setting, when most training labels are unavailable. We stipulate that even with limited training labels, we can still reasonably approximate the confidence of model on unlabeled samples by inspecting the prediction consistency through the training process. We use training consistency as a surrogate function and propose a consistency ranking loss for confidence estimation. On both image classification and segmentation tasks, our method achieves state-of-the-art performances in confidence estimation. Furthermore, we show the benefit of the proposed method through a downstream active learning task. 
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