We propose an algebra of operators along an observer’s worldline as a backgroundindependent algebra in quantum gravity. In that context, it is natural to think of the HartleHawking no boundary state as a universal state of maximum entropy, and to define entropy in terms of the relative entropy with this state. In the case that the only spacetimes considered correspond to de Sitter vacua with different values of the cosmological constant, this definition leads to sensible results.
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A<sc>bstract</sc> Free, publiclyaccessible full text available March 1, 2025 
A<sc>bstract</sc> The gravitational path integral can be used to compute the number of black hole states for a given energy window, or the free energy in a thermal ensemble. In this article we explain how to use the gravitational path integral to compute the separate number of bosonic and fermionic black hole microstates. We do this by comparing the partition function with and without the insertion of (−1)^{F}. In particular we introduce a universal rotating black hole that contributes to the partition function in the presence of (−1)^{F}. We study this problem for black holes in asymptotically flat space and in AdS, putting constraints on the high energy spectrum of holographic CFTs (not necessarily supersymmetric). Finally, we analyze wormhole contributions to related quantities.
Free, publiclyaccessible full text available April 1, 2025 
A<sc>bstract</sc> Generalizing previous results for
= 0 and$$ \mathcal{N} $$ $N$ = 1, we analyze$$ \mathcal{N} $$ $N$ = 2 JT supergravity on asymptotically AdS_{2}spaces with arbitrary topology and show that this theory of gravity is dual, in a holographic sense, to a certain random matrix ensemble in which supermultiplets of different$$ \mathcal{N} $$ $N$R charge are statistically independent and each is described by its own = 2 random matrix ensemble. We also analyze the case with a timereversal symmetry, either commuting or anticommuting with the$$ \mathcal{N} $$ $N$R charge. In order to compare supergravity to random matrix theory, we develop an = 2 analog of the recursion relations for WeilPetersson volumes originally discovered by Mirzakhani in the bosonic case.$$ \mathcal{N} $$ $N$Free, publiclyaccessible full text available December 1, 2024 
A<sc>bstract</sc> As shown by Louko and Sorkin in 1995, topology change in Lorentzian signature involves spacetimes with singular points, which they called crotches. We modify their construction to obtain Lorentzian semiclassical wormholes in asymptotically AdS. These solutions are obtained by inserting crotches on known saddles, like the doublecone or multiple copies of the Lorentzian black hole. The crotches implement swapidentifications, and are classically located near an extremal surface. The resulting Lorentzian wormholes have an instanton action equal to their area, which is responsible for topological suppression in any number of dimensions.
We conjecture that including such Lorentzian wormhole spacetimes is equivalent to path integrating over all mostly Euclidean smooth spacetimes. We present evidence for this by reproducing semiclassical features of the genus expansion of the spectral form factor, and of a latetime two point function, by summing over the moduli space of Lorentzian wormholes. As a final piece of evidence, we discuss the Lorentzian version of WestCoast replica wormholes.
Free, publiclyaccessible full text available October 1, 2024 
Abstract We review recent developments in Jackiw–Teitelboim gravity. This is a simple solvable model of quantum gravity in two dimensions (that arises e.g. from the swave sector of higher dimensional gravity systems with spherical symmetry). Due to its solvability, it has proven to be a fruitful toy model to analyze important questions such as the relation between black holes and chaos, the role of wormholes in black hole physics and holography, and the way in which information that falls into a black hole can be recovered.

A<sc>bstract</sc> We discuss the dynamics of expanding bubble walls in the presence of massive dark photons whose mass changes as they cross the wall. For sufficiently thin walls, we show that there exists a transient kinematic regime characterized by a constant reflection probability of longitudinal — but not transverse — modes. This effect can have important implications for the dynamics of expanding vacuum bubbles in the early Universe. Most notably, it leads to a new source of pressure on the expanding interface, featuring a nonmonotonic dependence on the
γ factor of the bubble walls and reaching a peak at intermediateγ factors that we dub Maximum Dynamic Pressure. When this pressure is large enough to halt the acceleration of the bubble walls, the difference in vacuum energy densities goes into making a fraction of the dark photons relativistic, turning them into dark radiation. If the dark radiation remains relativistic until late times, an observable contribution to ∆N _{eff}is possible for phase transitions with strengthα ∼ 10^{−2}− 10^{−1}. 
A<sc>bstract</sc> We construct a Type II_{∞}von Neumann algebra that describes the large
N physics of singletrace operators in AdS/CFT in the microcanonical ensemble, where there is no need to include perturbative 1/N corrections. Using only the extrapolate dictionary, we show that the entropy of semiclassical states on this algebra is holographically dual to the generalized entropy of the black hole bifurcation surface. From a boundary perspective, this constitutes a derivation of a special case of the QES prescription without any use of Euclidean gravity or replicas; from a purely bulk perspective, it is a derivation of the quantumcorrected BekensteinHawking formula as the entropy of an explicit algebra in theG → 0 limit of Lorentzian effective field theory quantum gravity. In a limit where a black hole is first allowed to equilibrate and then is later potentially reexcited, we show that the generalized second law is a direct consequence of the monotonicity of the entropy of algebras under tracepreserving inclusions. Finally, by considering excitations that are separated by more than a scrambling time we construct a “free product” von Neumann algebra that describes the semiclassical physics of long wormholes supported by shocks. We compute Rényi entropies for this algebra and show that they are equal to a sum over saddles associated to quantum extremal surfaces in the wormhole. Surprisingly, however, the saddles associated to “bulge” quantum extremal surfaces contribute with a negative sign. 
Free, publiclyaccessible full text available April 1, 2025

Free, publiclyaccessible full text available February 1, 2025