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  1. Abstract

    We perform a super-resolution analysis of the Subaru Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC) images to estimate the major merger fractions of z ∼ 4–7 dropout galaxies at the bright end of galaxy UV luminosity functions (LFs). Our super-resolution technique improves the spatial resolution of the ground-based HSC images, from ∼1″ to $\lesssim \!\!{0{^{\prime \prime }_{.}}1}$, which is comparable to that of the Hubble Space Telescope, allowing us to identify z ∼ 4–7 bright major mergers at a high completeness value of $\gtrsim \!\!90\%$. We apply the super-resolution technique to 6412, 16, 94, and 13 very bright dropout galaxies at z ∼ 4, 5, 6, and 7, respectively, in a UV luminosity range of LUV ∼ 3–$15\, L_{\rm UV}^*$ corresponding to −24 ≲ MUV ≲ −22. The major merger fractions are estimated to be $f_{\rm merger}\sim 10\%$–$20\%$ at z ∼ 4 and $\sim 50\%$–$70\%$ at z ∼ 5–7, which shows no fmerger difference compared to those of a control faint galaxy sample. Based on the fmerger estimates, we verify contributions of source blending effects and major mergers to the bright-end of double power-law (DPL) shape of z ∼ 4–7 galaxy UV LFs. While these two effects partly explain the DPL shape at LUV ∼ 3–$10\, L_{\rm UV}^*$, the DPL shape cannot be explained at the verymore »bright end of $L_{\rm UV}\gtrsim 10\, L_{\rm UV}^*$, even after the AGN contribution is subtracted. The results support scenarios in which other additional mechanisms such as insignificant mass quenching and low dust obscuration contribute to the DPL shape of galaxy UV LFs.

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  2. UV photolysis is an effective process to remove nitrosamines from contaminated water resources. Nitrosamines represent a class of compounds with high potential for carcinogenicity and, therefore, there are serious concerns regarding their threat to human health and their environmental toxicity. Although the photochemical parameters of parent nitrosamines and their initial reaction pathways are well understood, the fate of nitrogen-containing species and reactive nitrogen species generated from nitrosamine degradation has not yet been elucidated. In this study, we develop an elementary reaction-based kinetic model for the photolysis of N -nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and the photochemical transformation products. We use density functional theory quantum mechanical calculations to calculate the aqueous-phase free energies of activation and reaction to investigate the kinetics and thermodynamics properties of the elementary reactions. We generate ordinary differential equations for all species involved in the identified reactions and solve them to obtain the time-dependent concentration profiles of NDMA and the degradation products at pH 3 and pH 7. The profiles are compared to experimental results in the literature to validate our elementary reaction-based kinetic model. This is the first study to develop an elementary reaction-based kinetic model for the photochemical reaction of NDMA and reactive nitrogen species. The findings ofmore »this study have a significant impact on the active research area of nitrosative stress and advanced oxidation processes that utilize nitrogen-containing compounds such as UV/nitrate and UV/chloramine advanced oxidation processes.« less
  3. Abstract. We assessed the influence of the marine diazotrophic cyanobacterium Trichodesmium on the bio-optical properties of western tropical South Pacific (WTSP) waters (18–22°S, 160°E–160°W) during the February–March 2015 OUTPACE cruise. We performed measurements of backscattering and absorption coefficients, irradiance, and radiance in the euphotic zone with a Satlantic MicroPro free-fall profiler and took Underwater Vision Profiler 5 (UPV5) pictures for counting the largest Trichodesmium spp. colonies. Pigment concentrations were determined by fluorimetry and high-performance liquid chromatography and picoplankton abundance by flow cytometry. Trichome concentration was estimated from pigment algorithms and validated by surface visual counts. The abundance of large colonies counted by the UVP5 (maximum 7093coloniesm−3) was well correlated to the trichome concentrations (maximum 2093trichomesL−1) with an aggregation factor of 600. In the Melanesian archipelago, a maximum of 4715trichomesL−1 was enumerated in pump samples (3.2m) at 20°S,16730°E. High Trichodesmium abundance was always associated with absorption peaks of mycosporine-like amino acids (330, 360nm) and high particulate backscattering, but not with high Chl a fluorescence or blue particulate absorption (440nm). Along the west-to-east transect, Trichodesmium together with Prochlorococcus represented the major part of total chlorophyll concentration; themore »contribution of other groups were relatively small or negligible. The Trichodesmium contribution to total chlorophyll concentration was the highest in the Melanesian archipelago around New Caledonia and Vanuatu (60%), progressively decreased to the vicinity of the islands of Fiji (30%), and reached a minimum in the South Pacific Gyre where Prochlorococcus dominated chlorophyll concentration. The contribution of Trichodesmium to zeaxanthin was respectively 50, 40 and 20% for these regions. During the OUTPACE cruise, the relationship between normalized water-leaving radiance (nLw) in the ultraviolet and visible and chlorophyll concentration was similar to that found during the BIOSOPE cruise in the eastern tropical Pacific. Principal component analysis (PCA) of OUTPACE data showed that nLw at 305, 325, 340, 380, 412 and 440nm was strongly correlated to chlorophyll and zeaxanthin, while nLw at 490 and 565nm exhibited lower correlations. These results, as well as differences in the PCA of BIOSOPE data, indicated that nLw variability in the greenish blue and yellowish green during OUTPACE was influenced by other variables associated with Trichodesmium presence, such as backscattering coefficient, phycoerythrin fluorescence and/or zeaxanthin absorption, suggesting that Trichodesmium detection should involve examination of nLw in this spectral domain.

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