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  1. We report molecular gas observations of IRAS 20100-4156 and IRAS 03158+4227, two local ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) hosting some of the fastest and most massive molecular outflows known. Using ALMA and PdBI observations, we spatially resolve the CO(1-0) emission from the outflowing molecular gas in both and find maximum outflow velocities of $ v_{\rm max} \sim 1600$ and $\sim 1700$ km/s for IRAS 20100-4156 and IRAS 03158+4227, respectively. We find total gas mass outflow rates of $\dot M_{\rm OF} \sim 670$ and $\sim 350$ Msun/yr, respectively, corresponding to molecular gas depletion timescales $\tau^{\rm dep}_{\rm OF} \sim 11$ and $\sim 16$more »Myr. This is nearly 3 times shorter than the depletion timescales implied by star formation, $\tau^{\rm dep}_{\rm SFR} \sim 33$ and $\sim 46$ Myr, respectively. To determine the outflow driving mechanism, we compare the starburst ($L_{*}$) and AGN ($L_{\rm AGN}$) luminosities to the outflowing energy and momentum fluxes, using mid-infrared spectral decomposition to discern $L_{\rm AGN}$. Comparison to other molecular outflows in ULIRGs reveals that outflow properties correlate similarly with $L_{*}$ and $L_{\rm IR}$ as with $L_{\rm AGN}$, indicating that AGN luminosity alone may not be a good tracer of feedback strength and that a combination of AGN and starburst activity may be driving the most powerful molecular outflows. We also detect the OH 1.667 GHz maser line from both sources and demonstrate its utility in detecting molecular outflows.« less
  2. We present images obtained with LABOCA on the APEX telescope of a sample of 22 galaxies selected via their red Herschel SPIRE 250-, 350- and $500\textrm{-}\mu\textrm{m}$ colors. We aim to see if these luminous, rare and distant galaxies are signposting dense regions in the early Universe. Our $870\textrm{-}\mu\textrm{m}$ survey covers an area of $\approx0.8\,\textrm{deg}^2$ down to an average r.m.s. of $3.9\,\textrm{mJy beam}^{-1}$, with our five deepest maps going $\approx2\times$ deeper still. We catalog 86 DSFGs around our 'signposts', detected above a significance of $3.5\sigma$. This implies a $100\pm30\%$ over-density of $S_{870}>8.5\,\textrm{mJy}$ DSFGs, excluding our signposts, when comparing our number countsmore »to those in 'blank fields'. Thus, we are $99.93\%$ confident that our signposts are pinpointing over-dense regions in the Universe, and $\approx95\%$ confident that these regions are over-dense by a factor of at least $\ge1.5\times$. Using template SEDs and SPIRE/LABOCA photometry we derive a median photometric redshift of $z=3.2\pm0.2$ for our signposts, with an interquartile range of $z=2.8\textrm{-}3.6$. We constrain the DSFGs likely responsible for this over-density to within $|\Delta z|\le0.65$ of their respective signposts. These 'associated' DSFGs are radially distributed within $1.6\pm0.5\,\textrm{Mpc}$ of their signposts, have median SFRs of $\approx(1.0\pm0.2)\times10^3\,M_{\odot}\,\textrm{yr}^{-1}$ (for a Salpeter stellar IMF) and median gas reservoirs of $\sim1.7\times10^{11}\,M_{\odot}$. These candidate proto-clusters have average total SFRs of at least $\approx (2.3\pm0.5)\times10^3\,M_{\odot}\,\textrm{yr}^{-1}$ and space densities of $\sim9\times10^{-7}\,\textrm{Mpc}^{-3}$, consistent with the idea that their constituents may evolve to become massive ETGs in the centers of the rich galaxy clusters we see today.« less
  3. We report the serendipitous discovery of a dusty, starbursting galaxy at z=5.667 (called CRLE hereafter), in close physical association to the "normal" Main Sequence galaxy HZ10 at z=5.654. CRLE was identified by detection of [CII], [NII] and CO(2-1) line emission, making it the highest redshift, most luminous starburst in the COSMOS field. This massive, dusty galaxy appears to be forming stars at a rate of at least 1500$\,M_\odot$ yr$^{-1}$ in a compact region only ~3 kpc in diameter. The dynamical and dust emission properties of CRLE suggest an ongoing merger driving the starburst, in a potentially intermediate stage relative tomore »other known dusty galaxies at the same epoch. The ratio of [CII] to [NII] may suggest that an important contribution to the [CII] emission comes from a diffuse ionized gas component, which could be more extended than the dense, starbursting gas. CRLE appears to be located in a significant galaxy overdensity at the same redshift, potentially associated with a large scale cosmic structure recently identified in a Lyman Alpha Emitter survey. This overdensity suggests that CRLE and HZ10 reside in a protocluster environment, offering the tantalizing opportunity to study the effect of a massive starburst on protocluster star formation. Our findings support the interpretation that a significant fraction of the earliest galaxy formation may occur from the inside-out, within the central regions of the most massive halos, while rapidly evolving into the massive galaxy clusters observed in the local Universe.« less
  4. We studied the molecular gas properties of AzTEC/C159, a star-forming disk galaxy at $z=4.567$. We secured $^{12}$CO molecular line detections for the $J=2\to1$ and $J=5\to4$ transitions using the Karl G. Jansky VLA and the NOEMA interferometer. The broad (FWHM$\sim750\,{\rm km\,s}^{-1}$) and tentative double-peaked profiles of both $^{12}$CO lines are consistent with an extended molecular gas reservoir, which is distributed in a rotating disk as previously revealed from [CII] 158$\mu$m line observations. Based on the $^{12}$CO(2$\to$1) emission line we derived $L'_{\rm{CO}}=(3.4\pm0.6)\times10^{10}{\rm \,K\,km\,s}^{-1}{\rm \,pc}^{2}$, that yields a molecular gas mass of $M_{\rm H_2 }(\alpha_{\rm CO}/4.3)=(1.5\pm0.3)\times 10^{11}{\rm M}_\odot$ and unveils a gas-rich systemmore »with $\mu_{\rm gas}(\alpha_{\rm CO}/4.3)\equiv M_{\rm H_2}/M_\star=3.3\pm0.7$. The extreme star formation efficiency (SFE) of AzTEC/C159, parametrized by the ratio $L_{\rm{IR}}/L'_{\rm{CO}}=(216\pm80)\, {\rm L}_{\odot}{\rm \,(K\,km\,s}^{-1}{\rm \,pc}^{2})^{-1}$, is comparable to merger-driven starbursts such as local ultra-luminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) and SMGs. Likewise, the $^{12}$CO(5$\to$4)/CO(2$\to$1) line brightness temperature ratio of $r_{52}= 0.55\pm 0.15$ is consistent with high excitation conditions, similar to that observed in SMGs. We constrained the value for the $L'_{\text{CO}}-{\rm H}_2$ mass conversion factor in AzTEC/C159, i.e. $\alpha_{\text{CO}}=3.9^{+2.7}_{-1.3}{\rm \,M}_{\odot}{\rm \,K}^{-1}{\rm \,km}^{-1}{\rm \,s\,pc}^{-2}$, that is consistent with a self-gravitating molecular gas distribution as observed in local star-forming disk galaxies. Cold gas streams from cosmological filaments might be fueling a gravitationally unstable gas-rich disk in AzTEC/C159, which breaks into giant clumps forming stars as efficiently as in merger-driven systems and generate high gas excitation.« less