skip to main content

Title: Assessment of Novel Curcumin Derivatives as Potent Inhibitors of Inflammation and Amyloid-β Aggregation in Alzheimer’s Disease
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder affecting the elderly population worldwide. Brain inflammation plays a key role in the progression of AD. Deposition of senile plaques in the brain stimulates an inflammatory response with the overexpression of pro-inflammatory mediators, such as the neuroinflammatory cytokine. interleukin-6. Curcumin has been revealed to be a potential agent for treating AD following different neuroprotective mechanisms, such as inhibition of aggregation and decrease in brain inflammation. We synthesized new curcumin derivatives with the aim of providing good anti-aggregation capacity but also improved anti-inflammatory activity. Nine curcumin derivatives were synthesized by etherification and esterification of the aromatic region. From these derivatives, compound 8 exhibited an anti-inflammatory effect similar to curcumin, while compounds 3, 4, and 10 were more potent. Moreover, when the anti-aggregation activity is considered, compounds 3, 4, 5, 6, and 10 showed biological activity in vitro. Compound 4 exhibited a strong anti-aggregation effect higher than curcumin. Monofunctionalized curcumin derivatives showed better bioactivity than difunctionalized compounds. Moreover, the presence of bulky groups in the chemical structure of curcumin derivatives decreased bioactivity.
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Award ID(s):
Publication Date:
Journal Name:
Journal of Alzheimer's disease
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Activation of the CB2 receptor has been shown to have anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects without causing psychoactive effects. Previously, we reported that the compound ethyl 2(2-(N-(2,3-dimethylphenyl) phenylsulfonamido)acetamido)benzoate (ABK5) is a CB2 subtype selective agonist with anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects. In the present study, we tested four ABK5 derivatives, ABK5-1, ABK5-2, ABK5-5, and ABK5-6, to analyze the structure of ABK5 to obtain CB2-selective agonists with higher affinity and efficacy. Affinity, subtype selectivity, and G-protein coupling were determined by radioligand binding assays. Selected compounds were then subjected to evaluation of anti-inflammatory effects using two different cell lines, Jurkat (ABK5-1 and 5-2) andmore »BV-2 cells (ABK5-1), which are models of T cells and microglia, respectively. ABK5-1, ABK5-2, and ABK5-6 had comparable CB2 binding affinity with ABK5 (and stimulated G-protein coupling), while only ABK5-1 and ABK5-2 maintained CB2-subtype selectivity. ABK5-5 did not bind CB2 in the detectable range. RT-PCR and ELISA analysis showed that the two compounds also inhibit IL-2 and TNF-α production, and they were more efficacious than ABK5 in inhibiting TNF-α production. CXCL-12 mediated chemotaxis was also evaluated by the transwell migration assay, and both ABK5-1 and ABK5-2 inhibited chemotaxis with a stronger effect observed in ABK5-1. In the microglia cell line BV-2, ABK5-1 inhibited IL-1β and IL-6 production, which suggests this compound has anti-inflammatory effects through targeting multiple immune cells, and may be a candidate for treatment of inflammation.« less
  2. 2938 Using a Human Liver Tissue Equivalent (hLTE) Platform to Define the Functional Impact of Liver-Directed AAV Gene Therapy 63rd ASH Annual Meeting and Exposition, December 11-14, 2021, Georgia World Congress Center, Atlanta, GA Program: Oral and Poster Abstracts Session: 801. Gene Therapies: Poster II Hematology Disease Topics & Pathways: Bleeding and Clotting, Biological, Translational Research, Hemophilia, Genetic Disorders, Clinically Relevant, Diseases, Gene Therapy, Therapies Sunday, December 12, 2021, 6:00 PM-8:00 PM Ritu M Ramamurthy1*, Wen Ting Zheng2*, Sunil George, PhD1*, Meimei Wan1*, Yu Zhou, PhD1*, Baisong Lu, PhD1*, Colin E Bishop, PhD1*, Anthony Atala, M.D.1*, Christopher D Porada, PhD1*more »and M. Graca Almeida-Porada, MD3 1Fetal Research and Therapy Program, Wake Forest Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Winston Salem, NC 2Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 3Fetal Research and Therapy Program, Wake Forest Institute For Regenerative Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC Clinical trials employing AAV vectors for hemophilia A have been hindered by unanticipated immunological and/or inflammatory responses in some of the patients. Also, these trials have often yielded lower levels of transgene expression than were expected based upon preclinical studies, highlighting the poor correlation between the transduction efficiency observed in traditional 2D cultures of primary cells in vitro, and that observed in those same cell types in vivo. It has been also recognized that there are marked species-specific differences in AAV-vector tropism, raising the critical question of the accuracy with which various animal models will likely predict tropism/vector transduction efficiency, and eventual treatment success in humans. Human liver tissue equivalents (hLTEs) are comprised of major cell types in the liver in physiologically relevant frequencies and possess the ability to recapitulate the biology and function of native human liver. Here, we hypothesize that hLTEs can be used as a better model to predict the efficacy and safety of AAV gene therapy in humans. We fabricated hLTEs using 75% hepatocytes, 10% stellate cells, 10% Kupffer cells, and 5% liver sinusoid-derived endothelial cells in 96-well Elplasia plates with 79 microwells per well. hLTEs were transduced at an MOI of 105vg/cell, on the day of fabrication, with the clinically relevant serotypes AAV5 (hLTE-5) or AAV3b (hLTE-3b), both encoding a GFP reporter. After 4 days of self-aggregation, live/dead assay was performed to confirm viability. Non-transduced hLTEs served as negative controls (hLTE(-)), and hLTEs exposed to 20 mM acetaminophen were used as positive controls for liver inflammation/damage. Incucyte® Live-Cell Imaging system was used to track the aggregation and GFP expression of hLTEs. Over the course of the next 5 days, media was collected to determine hepatic functionality, RNA was isolated to assess dysregulation of genes involved in inflammation and fibrosis, DNA was isolated to determine whether AAV vectors integrate into the genome of human hepatocytes and, if so, to define the frequency at which this occurs and the genomic loci of integration, and hLTEs were fixed and processed at appropriate times for histological analyses and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). TEM analysis revealed that all groups exhibited microvilli and bile-canaliculus-like structures, demonstrating the formation of a rudimentary biliary system and, more importantly, proving that hLTEs resemble native liver structure. Incucyte® imaging showed that AAV5 and AAV3b transduction impaired formation of hLTEs (57.57 ± 2.42 and 24.57 ± 4.01 spheroids/well, respectively) in comparison with hLTE(-) (74.86 ± 3.8 spheroids/well). Quantification of GFP expression demonstrated that AAV5 yielded the most efficient transduction of hLTEs (fold change in GFP expression compared to control: 2.73 ± 0.09 and 1.19 ± 0.03 for hLTE-5 and hLTE-3b, respectively). Chromogenic assays showed decreased urea production in cell culture supernatants of AAV transduced groups compared to the non-transduced hLTEs on days 6 and 10 of culture, demonstrating decreased hepatocyte functionality. However, ALT and AST levels were similar in all groups. On day 10, hLTEs were either used for RNA isolation or fixed in 4% PFA and processed for histology. Masson’s Trichrome and Alcian Blue/Sirius Red staining was performed to detect fibrosis, which was then quantified using ImageJ. These analyses showed no significant increase in fibrosis in either hLTE-5 or hLTE-3b compared to hLTE(-). Nevertheless, RT2 PCR Array for Human Fibrosis detected dysregulation of several genes involved in fibrosis/inflammation in both hLTE-5 and hLTE-3b (16/84 and 26/84, respectively). In conclusion, data collected thus far show successful recapitulation of native liver biology and demonstrate that AAV5 transduces hLTEs more efficiently than AAV3b. However, impaired self-aggregation and decreased hepatocyte functionality was observed in both AAV-transduced groups. Studies to address the incidence and location(s) of AAV integration are ongoing. We have thus shown that the hLTE system can provide critical new knowledge regarding the efficacy and safety of AAV gene therapy in the human liver. Disclosures: No relevant conflicts of interest to declare.« less
  3. The interaction of acetamidine and phenylamidine with peri-R-ethynyl-9,10-anthraquinones in refluxing n-butanol leads to the formation of cascade transformations products: addition/elimination/cyclization―2-R-7H-dibenzo[de,h]quinolin-7-ones and(or) 2-R-3-aroyl-7H-dibenzo[de,h]quinolin-7-ones. The anti-inflammatory and antitumor properties of the new 2-R-7H-dibenzo[de,h]quinolin-7-ones were investigated in vivo, in vitro, and in silico. The synthesized compounds exhibit high anti-inflammatory activity at dose 20 mg/kg (intraperitoneal injection) in the models of exudative (histamine-induced) and immunogenic (concanavalin A-induced) inflammation. Molecular docking data demonstrate that quinolinones can potentially intercalate into DNA similarly to the antitumor drug doxorubicin.
  4. Curcumin is a derivative of the turmeric spice, which is a yellow-pigmented root crop with a resilient sheath and bright orange flesh. It is originally known to be utilized in Asian dishes but, has been discovered to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antibacterial and anticancer characteristics. Different researchers have established great possibilities of curcumin's ability to prohibit the growth of cancer cells especially, because of its potentiality to differentiate between normal and cancerous cells. Research questions include understanding the effects of curcumin on the MCF-7 breast cancer cells with regards to the biomolecules of the cells. The results indicated that aftermore »attachment of cells for 48 hours, the concentration of curcumin at 15 µM showed more than 90% inhibition of cells within 24 hours. The analysis was carried out on the viability of the cells, western blotting and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Western blot analysis of signaling proteins from curcumin-treated cells showed that the expression level of phosphorylated protein p44/42 in the MAP kinase pathway was significantly decreased and the apoptotic marker cleaved caspase 3 was increased as compared to the curcumin-untreated control cells. Moreover, RT-PCR analysis of the reference genes in the apoptotic pathway (p53, caspase 9, BCL-2 and Bax) demonstrated the upregulation of p53, Bax and caspase 9 genes. The results assembled from this present study suggested that curcumin inhibited the growth and induced caspase-mediated apoptosis of MCF-7 cells via the MAPK signaling pathway. Therefore, breast cancer treatment with curcumin seems to be a promising remedial path in near future.« less
  5. The significance of multiple number of donor-acceptor entities on a central electron donor in a star-shaped molecular system in improving light energy harvesting ability is reported. For this, donor-acceptor-donor type conjugates comprised up to three entities ferrocenyl (Fc)-diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP) onto a central triphenylamine (TPA), (4-6) by the Pd-catalyzed Sonogashira cross–coupling reactions have been newly synthesized and characterized. Donor-acceptor conjugates possessing diketopyrrolopyrrole (1 to 3 entities) onto the central triphenylamine, (1-3) served as reference dyads while monomeric DPP and Fc-DPP served as control compounds. Both DPP and Fc-DPP carrying conjugates exhibited red-shifted absorption compared to their respective control compounds revealing existencemore »of ground state interactions. Furthermore, DPP fluorescence in 4-6 was found to be quantitatively quenched while for 1-3, this property varied between 73-65% suggesting occurrence moderate amounts of excited state events. The electrochemical investigations exhibited an additional low potential oxidation in the case of Fc-DPP-TPA based derivatives (4-6) owing to the presence of ferrocene unit(s). This was in addition to DPP and TPA redox peaks. Using spectral, electrochemical and computational studies, Gibbs free-energy calculations were performed to visualize excited state charge separation (GCS) in these donor-acceptor conjugates as a function of different number of Fc-DPP entities. Formation of Fc+-DPP•--TPA charge separated states (CSS) in the case of 4-6 was evident. Using spectroelectrochemical studies, spectrum of CSS was deduced. Finally, femtosecond transient absorption spectral studies were performed to gather information on excited state charge separation. Increasing the number of Fc-DPP entities in 4-6 improved charge separation rates. Surprisingly, lifetime of the charge separated state, Fc+-DPP•--TPA was found to persist longer with an increase in the number of Fc-DPP entities in 4-6 as compared to Fc-DPP-control and simple DPP derived donor-acceptor conjugates in literature. This unprecedented result has been attributed to subtle changes in GCS and GCR and the associated electron coupling between different entities.« less