We present a sublinear time algorithm that allows one to sample multiple edges from a distribution that is pointwise εclose to the uniform distribution, in an amortizedefficient fashion. We consider the adjacency list query model, where access to a graph G is given via degree and neighbor queries.
The problem of sampling a single edge in this model has been raised by Eden and Rosenbaum (SOSA 18). Let n and m denote the number of vertices and edges of G, respectively. Eden and Rosenbaum provided upper and lower bounds of Θ^*(n/√ m) for sampling a single edge in general graphs (where O^*(⋅) suppresses poly(1/ε) and poly(log n) dependencies). We ask whether the query complexity lower bound for sampling a single edge can be circumvented when multiple samples are required. That is, can we get an improved amortized persample cost if we allow a preprocessing phase? We answer in the affirmative.
We present an algorithm that, if one knows the number of required samples q in advance, has an overall cost that is sublinear in q, namely, O^*(√ q ⋅(n/√ m)), which is strictly preferable to O^*(q⋅ (n/√ m)) cost resulting from q invocations of the algorithm by Eden and Rosenbaum.
Subsequent to a preliminary version of this work, Tětek and Thorup (arXiv, preprint) proved that this bound is essentially optimal.
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SublinearTime Algorithms for Counting Star Subgraphs via Edge Sampling
We study the problem of estimating the value of sums of the form Sp≜∑(xip) when one has the ability to sample xi≥0 with probability proportional to its magnitude. When p=2, this problem is equivalent to estimating the selectivity of a selfjoin query in database systems when one can sample rows randomly. We also study the special case when {xi} is the degree sequence of a graph, which corresponds to counting the number of pstars in a graph when one has the ability to sample edges randomly. Our algorithm for a (1±ε)multiplicative approximation of Sp has query and time complexities O(mloglognϵ2S1/pp). Here, m=∑xi/2 is the number of edges in the graph, or equivalently, half the number of records in the database table. Similarly, n is the number of vertices in the graph and the number of unique values in the database table. We also provide tight lower bounds (up to polylogarithmic factors) in almost all cases, even when {xi} is a degree sequence and one is allowed to use the structure of the graph to try to get a better estimate. We are not aware of any prior lower bounds on the problem of join selectivity estimation. For the graph problem, prior work which assumed the ability to sample only vertices uniformly gave algorithms with matching lower bounds (Gonen et al. in SIAM J Comput 25:1365–1411, 2011). With the ability to sample edges randomly, we show that one can achieve faster algorithms for approximating the number of star subgraphs, bypassing the lower bounds in this prior work. For example, in the regime where Sp≤n, and p=2, our upper bound is O~(n/S1/2p), in contrast to their Ω(n/S1/3p) lower bound when no random edge queries are available. In addition, we consider the problem of counting the number of directed paths of length two when the graph is directed. This problem is equivalent to estimating the selectivity of a join query between two distinct tables. We prove that the general version of this problem cannot be solved in sublinear time. However, when the ratio between indegree and outdegree is bounded—or equivalently, when the ratio between the number of occurrences of values in the two columns being joined is bounded—we give a sublinear time algorithm via a reduction to the undirected case.
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 NSFPAR ID:
 10026250
 Date Published:
 Journal Name:
 Algorithmica
 ISSN:
 01784617
 Format(s):
 Medium: X
 Sponsoring Org:
 National Science Foundation
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We present a sublinear time algorithm that allows one to sample multiple edges from a distribution that is pointwise ϵclose to the uniform distribution, in an amortizedefficient fashion. We consider the adjacency list query model, where access to a graph G is given via degree and neighbor queries. The problem of sampling a single edge in this model has been raised by Eden and Rosenbaum (SOSA 18). Let n and m denote the number of vertices and edges of G, respectively. Eden and Rosenbaum provided upper and lower bounds of Θ∗(n/ √ m) for sampling a single edge in general graphs (where O ∗(·) suppresses poly(1/ϵ) and poly(log n) dependencies). We ask whether the query complexity lower bound for sampling a single edge can be circumvented when multiple samples are required. That is, can we get an improved amortized persample cost if we allow a preprocessing phase? We answer in the affirmative. We present an algorithm that, if one knows the number of required samples q in advance, has an overall cost that is sublinear in q, namely, O∗(√ q · (n/ √ m)), which is strictly preferable to O∗(q · (n/ √ m)) cost resulting from q invocations of the algorithm by Eden and Rosenbaum. Subsequent to a preliminary version of this work, Tětek and Thorup (arXiv, preprint) proved that this bound is essentially optimal.more » « less

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