skip to main content

Title: Transient Thermal Performance of Rear Door Heat Exchanger in Local Contained Environment During Water Side Failure
The constant increase in data center computational and processing requirements has led to increases in the IT equipment power demand and cooling challenges of highdensity (HD) data centers. As a solution to this, the hybrid and liquid systems are widely used as part of HD data centers thermal management solutions. This study presents an experimental based investigation and analysis of the transient thermal performance of a stand-alone server cabinet. The total heat load of the cabinet is controllable remotely and a rear door heat exchanger is attached with controllable water flow rate. The cooling performances of two different failure scenarios are investigated. One is in the water chiller and another is in the water pump for the Rear Door Heat eXchanger (RDHX). In addition, the study reports the impact of each scenario on the IT equipment thermal response and on the cabinet outlet temperature using a mobile temperature and velocity mesh (MTVM) experimental tool. Furthermore, this study also addresses and characterizes the heat exchanger cooling performance during both scenarios.
; ; ;
Award ID(s):
Publication Date:
Journal Name:
ASME 2017 International Technical Conference and Exhibition on Packaging and Integration of Electronic and Photonic Microsystems collocated with the ASME 2017 Conference on Information Storage and Processing Systems
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Data Center hybrid air/liquid cooling systems such as rear door heat exchangers, overhead and in row cooling systems enable localized, on-demand cooling, or “smart cooling.” At the heart of all hybrid cooling systems is an air to liquid cross flow heat exchanger that regulates the amount of cooling delivered by the system by modulating the liquid or air flows and/or temperatures. Due the central role that the heat exchanger plays in the system response, understanding the transient response of the heat exchanger is crucial for the precise control of hybrid cooling system. This paper reports on the transient experimental characterizationmore »of heat exchangers used in data centers applications. An experimental rig designed to introduce controlled transient perturbations in temperature and flow on the inlet air and liquid flow streams of a 12 in. × 12 in. heat exchanger test core is discussed. The conditioned air is delivered to the test core by a suction wind tunnel with upstream air heaters and a frequency variable axial blower to allow the control of air flow rate and bulk temperature. The conditioned water is delivered to the test core by a water delivery system consisting of two separate water circuits, one delivering cold water, and the other hot water. By switching from one circuit to the other or mixing water from both circuits, the rig is capable of generating step, ramp and frequency perturbations in water temperature at constant flow or step, ramp or frequency perturbations in water flow at constant temperature or combinations of temperature and water flow perturbations. Experimental data are presented for a 12×12 heat exchanger core with a single liquid pass under different transient perturbations« less
  2. In typical data centers, the servers and IT equipment are cooled by air and almost half of total IT power is dedicated to cooling. Hybrid cooling is a combined cooling technology with both air and water, where the main heat generating components are cooled by water or water-based coolants and rest of the components are cooled by air supplied by CRAC or CRAH. Retrofitting the air-cooled servers with cold plates and pumps has the advantage over thermal management of CPUs and other high heat generating components. In a typical 1U server, the CPUs were retrofitted with cold plates and themore »server tested with raised coolant inlet conditions. The study showed the server can operate with maximum utilization for CPUs, DIMMs, and PCH for inlet coolant temperature from 25–45 °C following the ASHRAE guidelines. The server was also tested for failure scenarios of the pumps and fans with reducing numbers of fans and pumps. To reduce cooling power consumption at the facility level and increase air-side economizer hours, the hybrid cooled server can be operated at raised inlet air temperatures. The trade-off in energy savings at the facility level due to raising the inlet air temperatures versus the possible increase in server fan power and component temperatures is investigated. A detailed CFD analysis with a minimum number of server fans can provide a way to find an operating range of inlet air temperature for a hybrid cooled server. Changes in the model are carried out in 6SigmaET for an individual server and compared to the experimental data to validate the model. The results from this study can be helpful in determining the room level operating set points for data centers housing hybrid cooled server racks.« less
  3. The role of data centers in modern life has expanded rapidly over the past decades. In addition, this expansion has resulted in a significant increase in the share of data centers in total energy consumption of the world. Thus, reliability and energy efficiency have become a common concern in data centers. Information technology equipment (ITE) and cooling infrastructure are the largest power consumer in data centers. The cooling power in a data center depends on the amount of heat dissipated by ITE. Therefore, the thermal design of the ITE impacts not only the ITE power but also affects the infrastructuremore »power and has a significant role in the overall efficiency of data centers. This paper studies the impact of fans location and airflow balancing on the thermal performance and power of a server. A detailed computational fluid dynamic (CFD) model of the server is built, calibrated and validated using experimental test results. Next, impacts of moving fans to the rear side of the chassis on the flow rate and temperature of components are investigated. Special attention is given to controlling airflow through power supplies.« less
  4. UPS (Uninterruptible Power Supply) units and batteries are essential subsystems in data centers or telecom industries to protect equipment from electrical power spikes, surges and power outages. UPS units handle electrical power and dissipate a large amount of heat, and possess a high efficiency. Therefore, cooling units (e.g., CRACs) are needed to manage the thermal reliability of this equipment. On the other hand, battery operating conditions and reliability are closely related to the ambient temperature according to battery manufacturers; reliability increases when the ambient room temperature is around 25ºC. This study analyzed different room configurations and scenarios using the commercialmore »CFD software 6Sigma Room DCXTM. As a first approach, we evaluated the thermal behavior and cooling degradation using standard thermal performance metrics SHI (Supply Heat Index) and RHI (Return Heat Index). These are frequently implemented in data centers to measure the level of mixing between cold and hot air streams. The results from this evaluation showed that standard cooling practices are inefficient, as values for the two metrics differed considerably from industry recommendations. We also considered a metric from the second law of thermodynamics using exergy destruction. This technique allowed us to find the mechanisms that increase entropy generation the most, including viscous shear and air stream mixing. Reducing exergy destruction will result in lessening lost thermodynamic work and thus reduce energy required for cooling. Typically, UPS and batteries are located in different rooms due to the hydrogen generation by the batteries. The integration of both equipment in the same room is a new concept, and this study aims to analyze the thermal performance of the room. Adding controllability showed improvements by reducing the exergy destruction due to viscous dissipation while slightly increasing thermal mixing in the rooms. Ducting the return flows to avoid flow mixing increased pressure drop, but reduced heat transfer between the hot and cold air streams, which in turn, improved the thermal performance. In the study, we determined the optimal configuration and possible strategies to improve cooling while maintaining desirable battery temperatures.« less
  5. Modern day data centers are operated at high power for increased power density, maintenance, and cooling which covers almost 2 percent (70 billion kilowatt-hours) of the total energy consumption in the US. IT components and cooling system occupy the major portion of this energy consumption. Although data centers are designed to perform efficiently, cooling the high-density components is still a challenge. So, alternative methods to improve the cooling efficiency has become the drive to reduce the cooling cost. As liquid cooling is more efficient for high specific heat capacity, density, and thermal conductivity, hybrid cooling can offer the advantage ofmore »liquid cooling of high heat generating components in the traditional air-cooled servers. In this experiment, a 1U server is equipped with cold plate to cool the CPUs while the rest of the components are cooled by fans. In this study, predictive fan and pump failure analysis are performed which also helps to explore the options for redundancy and to reduce the cooling cost by improving cooling efficiency. Redundancy requires the knowledge of planned and unplanned system failures. As the main heat generating components are cooled by liquid, warm water cooling can be employed to observe the effects of raised inlet conditions in a hybrid cooled server with failure scenarios. The ASHRAE guidance class W4 for liquid cooling is chosen for our experiment to operate in a range from 25°C – 45°C. The experiments are conducted separately for the pump and fan failure scenarios. Computational load of idle, 10%, 30%, 50%, 70% and 98% are applied while powering only one pump and the miniature dry cooler fans are controlled externally to maintain constant inlet temperature of the coolant. As the rest of components such as DIMMs & PCH are cooled by air, maximum utilization for memory is applied while reducing the number fans in each case for fan failure scenario. The components temperatures and power consumption are recorded in each case for performance analysis« less