skip to main content


The NSF Public Access Repository (NSF-PAR) system and access will be unavailable from 11:00 PM ET on Thursday, June 13 until 2:00 AM ET on Friday, June 14 due to maintenance. We apologize for the inconvenience.

Title: Design patterns for the industrial Internet of Things
The Internet of Things (IoT) is a vast collection of interconnected sensors, devices, and services that share data and information over the Internet with the objective of leveraging multiple information sources to optimize related systems. The technologies associated with the IoT have significantly improved the quality of many existing applications by reducing costs, improving functionality, increasing access to resources, and enhancing automation. The adoption of IoT by industries has led to the next industrial revolution: Industry 4.0. The rise of the Industrial IoT (IIoT) promises to enhance factory management, process optimization, worker safety, and more. However, the rollout of the IIoT is not without significant issues, and many of these act as major barriers that prevent fully achieving the vision of Industry 4.0. One major area of concern is the security and privacy of the massive datasets that are captured and stored, which may leak information about intellectual property, trade secrets, and other competitive knowledge. As a way forward toward solving security and privacy concerns, we aim in this paper to identify common input-output (I/O) design patterns that exist in applications of the IIoT. These design patterns enable constructing an abstract model representation of data flow semantics used by such applications, and therefore better understand how to secure the information related to IIoT operations. In this paper, we describe communication protocols and identify common I/O design patterns for IIoT applications with an emphasis on data flow in edge devices, which, in the industrial control system (ICS) setting, are most often involved in process control or monitoring.  more » « less
Award ID(s):
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ;
Date Published:
Journal Name:
2018 14th IEEE International Workshop on Factory Communication Systems (WFCS)
Page Range / eLocation ID:
1 to 10
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) has been shown to be of great value to the deployment of smart industrial environment. With the immense growth of IoT devices, dynamic spectrum sharing is introduced, envisaged as a promising solution to the spectrum shortage in IIoT. Meanwhile, cyber-physical safety issue remains to be a great concern for the reliable operation of IIoT system. In this paper, we consider the dynamic spectrum access in IIoT under a Received Signal Strength (RSS) based adversarial localization attack. We employ a practical and effective power perturbation approach to mitigate the localization threat on the IoT devices and cast the privacy-preserving spectrum sharing problem as a stochastic channel selection game. To address the randomness induced by the power perturbation approach, we develop a two-timescale distributed learning algorithm that converges almost surely to the set of correlated equilibria of the game. The numerical results show the convergence of the algorithm and corroborate that the design of two-timescale learning process effectively alleviates the network throughput degradation brought by the power perturbation procedure. 
    more » « less
  2. Internet of Things (IoT) is becoming increasingly popular due to its ability to connect machines and enable an ecosystem for new applications and use cases. One such use case is industrial loT (1IoT) that refers to the application of loT in industrial settings especially engaging instrumentation and control of sensors and machines with Cloud technologies. Industries are counting on the fifth generation (5G) of mobile communications to provide seamless, ubiquitous and flexible connectivity among machines, people and sensors. The open radio access network (O-RAN) architecture adds additional interfaces and RAN intelligent controllers that can be leveraged to meet the IIoT service requirements. In this paper, we examine the connectivity requirements for IIoT that are dominated by two industrial applications: control and monitoring. We present the strength, weakness, opportunity, and threat (SWOT) analysis of O-RAN for IIoT and provide a use case example which illustrates how O-RAN can support diverse and changing IIoT network services. We conclude that the flexibility of the O-RAN architecture, which supports the latest cellular network standards and services, provides a path forward for next generation IIoT network design, deployment, customization, and maintenance. It offers more control but still lacks products-hardware and software-that are exhaustively tested in production like environments. 
    more » « less
  3. For the pulping process in a pulp & paper plant that uses woodchips as raw material, the moisture content (MC) of the woodchips is a major process disturbance that affects product quality and consumption of energy, water, and chemicals. Existing woodchip MC sensing technologies have not been widely adopted by the industry due to unreliable performance and/or high maintenance requirements that can hardly be met in a manufacturing environment. To address these limitations, we propose a non-destructive, economic, and robust woodchip MC sensing approach utilizing channel state information (CSI) from industrial Internet-of-Things (IIoT) based Wi-Fi. While these IIoT devices are small, low-cost, and rugged to stand for harsh environment, they do have their limitations such as the raw CSI data are often very noisy and sensitive to woodchip packing. Thus, direct application of machine learning (ML) algorithms leads to poor performance. To address this, statistics pattern analysis (SPA) is utilized to extract physically and statistically meaningful features from the raw CSI data, which are sensitive to woodchip MC but not to packing. The SPA features are then used for developing multiclass classification models as well as regression models using various linear and nonlinear ML techniques to provide potential solutions to woodchip MC estimation for the pulp and paper industry. 
    more » « less
  4. Abstract—Internet of Things (IoT) has become a pervasive and diverse concept in recent years. IoT applications and services have given rise to a number of sub-fields in the IoT space. Wearable technology, with its particular set of characteristics and application domains, has formed a rapidly growing subfield of IoT, viz., Wearable Internet of Things (WIoT). While numerous wearable devices are available in the market today, security and privacy are key factors for wide adoption of WIoT. Wearable devices are resource constrained by nature with limited storage, power, and computation. A Cloud-Enabled IoT (CEIoT) architecture, a dominant paradigm currently shaping the industry and suggested by many researchers, needs to be adopted for WIoT. In this paper, we develop an access control framework for cloud-enabled WIoT (CEWIoT) based on the Access Control Oriented (ACO) architecture recently developed for CEIoT in general. We first enhance the ACO architecture from the perspective of WIoT by adding an Object Abstraction Layer, and then develop our framework based on interactions between different layers of this enhanced ACO architecture. We present a general classification and taxonomy of IoT devices, along with brief introduction to various application domains of IoT and WIoT. We then present a remote health and fitness monitoring use case to illustrate different access control aspects of our framework and outline its possible enforcement in a commercial CEIoT platform, viz., AWS IoT. Finally, we discuss the objectives of our access control framework and relevant open problems. 
    more » « less
  5. The NTT (Nippon Telegraph and Telephone) Data Corporation report found that 80% of U.S. consumers are concerned about their smart home data security. The Internet of Things (IoT) technology brings many benefits to people's homes, and more people across the world are heavily dependent on the technology and its devices. However, many IoT devices are deployed without considering security, increasing the number of attack vectors available to attackers. Numerous Internet of Things devices lacking security features have been compromised by attackers, resulting in many security incidents. Attackers can infiltrate these smart home devices and control the home via turning off the lights, controlling the alarm systems, and unlocking the smart locks, to name a few. Attackers have also been able to access the smart home network, leading to data exfiltration. There are many threats that smart homes face, such as the Man-in-the-Middle (MIM) attacks, data and identity theft, and Denial of Service (DoS) attacks. The hardware vulnerabilities often targeted by attackers are SPI, UART, JTAG, USB, etc. Therefore, to enhance the security of the smart devices used in our daily lives, threat modeling should be implemented early on in developing any given system. This past Spring semester, Morgan State University launched a (senior) capstone project targeting undergraduate (electrical) engineering students who were thus allowed to research with the Cybersecurity Assurance and Policy (CAP) center for four months. The primary purpose of the capstone was to help students further develop both hardware and software skills while researching. For this project, the students mainly focused on the Arduino Mega Board. Some of the expected outcomes for this capstone project include: 1) understanding the physical board components, 2) learning how to attack the board through the STRIDE technique, 3) generating a Data Flow Diagram (DFD) of the system using the Microsoft threat modeling tool, 4) understanding the attack patterns, and 5) generating the threat based on the user's input. To prevent future threats and attacks from taking advantage of systems vulnerabilities, the practice of "threat modeling" is implemented. This method allows the analysis of potential attackers, including their goals and techniques, while also providing solutions and mitigation strategies. Although Threat modeling can be performed throughout the development of a system, implementing it during developmental stages will prevent further problems in the future. Threat Modeling is crucial because it will help identify any potential threat before it propagates in the system. Identifying threats and providing countermeasures will save both time and money while also keeping the consumers safe. As a result, students must grow to understand how essential detecting and preventing attacks are to protect consumer information systems and networks. At the end of this capstone project, students should take away hands-on skills in cyber defense. 
    more » « less