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Title: Influences of water quality and climate on the water-energy nexus: A spatial comparison of two water systems
Award ID(s):
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ;
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Journal of Environmental Management
Page Range / eLocation ID:
613 to 621
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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  1. Private households around the world use and combine multiple water sources, including diverse forms of market services and self-supply. The reasons for this have so far not been explained in a coherent framework, nor have the implications for water management and policy been sufficiently analyzed. Here, we examine how heterogeneity of water services, household co-production, and risks of provision influence household demand patterns. We apply an economic household production model that incorporates two water quality levels for different household activities to exemplary situations. We derive a number of explanations why households use and combine water services that expand the current state of research. Relevant findings include: (i) The diverse characteristics of available water services result in different time requirements for water procurement and varying degrees of suitability for household activities. (ii) Differences in the value placed on time can induce households to demand heterogeneous water services because these enable them to find a balance between using time and money to access water. (iii) Certain water services may be demanded because they function as insurance against both uncertain and unreliable supply. Our insights are relevant for water policy, in particular for developing and managing demand-responsive systems, and for the implementation and monitoring of normative goals for access to water. 
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  3. Abstract

    Per‐ and poly‐fluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are interfacially‐active contaminants that adsorb at air‐water interfaces (AWIs). Water‐unsaturated soils have abundant AWIs, which generally consist of two types: one is associated with the pendular rings of water between soil grains (i.e., bulk AWI) and the other arises from the thin water films covering the soil grains. To date, the two types of AWIs have been treated the same when modeling PFAS retention in vadose zones. However, the presence of electrical double layers of soil grain surfaces and the subsequently modified chemical potential of PFAS at the AWI may significantly change the PFAS adsorption at the thin‐water‐film AWI relative to that at the bulk AWI. Given that thin water films contribute to over 90% of AWIs in the vadose zone under many field‐relevant wetting conditions, it is critical to quantify the potential anomalous adsorption of PFAS at the thin‐water‐film AWI. We develop a thermodynamic‐based mathematical model to quantify this anomalous adsorption. The model couples the chemical equilibrium of PFAS with the Poisson‐Boltzmann equation that governs the distribution of electrical potential in a thin water film. Our model analyses suggest that PFAS adsorption at thin‐water‐film AWI can deviate significantly (up to 82%) from that at bulk AWIs. The deviation increases for lower porewater ionic strength, thinner water film, and higher soil grain surface charge. These results highlight the importance of accounting for the anomalous adsorption of PFAS at the thin‐water‐film AWI when modeling PFAS fate and transport in the vadose zone.

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