skip to main content


Title: Hard convex lens-shaped particles: metastable, glassy and jammed states
We generate and study dense positionally and/or orientationally disordered, including jammed, monodisperse packings of hard convex lens-shaped particles (lenses). Relatively dense isotropic fluid configurations of lenses of various aspect ratios are slowly compressed via a Monte Carlo method based procedure. Under this compression protocol, while ‘flat’ lenses form a nematic fluid phase (where particles are positionally disordered but orientationally ordered) and ‘globular’ lenses form a plastic solid phase (where particles are positionally ordered but orientationally disordered), ‘intermediate’, neither ‘flat’ nor ‘globular’, lenses do not form either mesophase. In general, a crystal solid phase (where particles are both positionally and orientationally ordered) does not spontaneously form during lengthy numerical simulation runs. In correspondence to those volume fractions at which a transition to the crystal solid phase would occur in equilibrium, a ‘downturn’ is observed in the inverse compressibility factor versus volume fraction curve beyond which this curve behaves essentially linearly. This allows us to estimate the volume fraction at jamming of the dense non-crystalline packings so generated. These packings are nematic for ‘flat’ lenses and plastic for ‘globular’ lenses, while they are robustly isotropic for ‘intermediate’ lenses, as confirmed by the calculation of the τ order metric, among other quantities. The structure factors S ( k ) of the corresponding jammed states tend to zero as the wavenumber k goes to zero, indicating they are effectively hyperuniform ( i.e. , their infinite-wavelength density fluctuations are anomalously suppressed). Among all possible lens shapes, ‘intermediate’ lenses with aspect ratio around 2/3 are special because they are those that reach the highest volume fractions at jamming while being positionally and orientationally disordered and these volume fractions are as high as those reached by nematic jammed states of ‘flat’ lenses and plastic jammed states of ‘globular’ lenses. All of their attributes, taken together, make such ‘intermediate’ lens packings particularly good glass-forming materials.  more » « less
Award ID(s):
1701843
NSF-PAR ID:
10090520
Author(s) / Creator(s):
;
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Soft Matter
Volume:
14
Issue:
40
ISSN:
1744-683X
Page Range / eLocation ID:
8205 to 8218
Format(s):
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. We perform computational studies of jammed particle packings in two dimensions undergoing isotropic compression using the well-characterized soft particle (SP) model and deformable particle (DP) model that we developed for bubbles and emulsions. In the SP model, circular particles are allowed to overlap, generating purely repulsive forces. In the DP model, particles minimize their perimeter, while deforming at the fixed area to avoid overlap during compression. We compare the structural and mechanical properties of jammed packings generated using the SP and DP models as a function of the packing fraction ρ, instead of the reduced number density φ. We show that near jamming onset the excess contact number Δz=z-z J and shear modulus G scale as Δρ 0.5 in the large system limit for both models, where Δρ=ρ-ρ J and z J ≈4 and ρ J ≈0.842 are the values at jamming onset. Δz and G for the SP and DP models begin to differ for ρ≥0.88. In this regime, Δz∼G can be described by a sum of two power-laws in Δρ, i.e. Δz∼G∼C 0 Δρ 0.5 +C 1 Δρ 1.0 to lowest order. We show that the ratio C 1 /C 0 is much larger for the DP model compared to that for the SP model. We also characterize the void space in jammed packings as a function of ρ. We find that the DP model can describe the formation of Plateau borders as ρ→1.0. We further show that the results for z and the shape factor A versus ρ for the DP model agree with recent experimental studies of foams and emulsions. 
    more » « less
  2. Nearly, all dense suspensions undergo dramatic and abrupt thickening transitions in their flow behavior when sheared at high stresses. Such transitions occur when the dominant interactions between the suspended particles shift from hydrodynamic to frictional. Here, we interpret abrupt shear thickening as a precursor to a rigidity transition and give a complete theory of the viscosity in terms of a universal crossover scaling function from the frictionless jamming point to a rigidity transition associated with friction, anisotropy, and shear. Strikingly, we find experimentally that for two different systems—cornstarch in glycerol and silica spheres in glycerol—the viscosity can be collapsed onto a single universal curve over a wide range of stresses and volume fractions. The collapse reveals two separate scaling regimes due to a crossover between frictionless isotropic jamming and frictional shear jamming, with different critical exponents. The material-specific behavior due to the microscale particle interactions is incorporated into a scaling variable governing the proximity to shear jamming, that depends on both stress and volume fraction. This reformulation opens the door to importing the vast theoretical machinery developed to understand equilibrium critical phenomena to elucidate fundamental physical aspects of the shear thickening transition.

     
    more » « less
  3. null (Ed.)
    We examine the regime between crystalline and amorphous packings of anisotropic objects on surfaces of different genus by continuously varying their size distribution or shape from monodispersed spheres to bidispersed mixtures or monodispersed ellipsoidal particles; we also consider an anisotropic variant of the Thomson problem with a mixture of charges. With increasing anisotropy, we first observe the disruption of translational order with an intermediate orientationally ordered hexatic phase as proposed by Nelson, Rubinstein and Spaepen, and then a transition to amorphous state. By analyzing the structure of the disclination motifs induced, we show that the hexatic-amorphous transition is caused by the growth and connection of disclination grain boundaries, suggesting this transition lies in the percolation universality class in the scenarios considered. 
    more » « less
  4. null (Ed.)
    We investigate the mechanical response of packings of purely repulsive, frictionless disks to quasistatic deformations. The deformations include simple shear strain at constant packing fraction and at constant pressure, “polydispersity” strain (in which we change the particle size distribution) at constant packing fraction and at constant pressure, and isotropic compression. For each deformation, we show that there are two classes of changes in the interparticle contact networks: jump changes and point changes. Jump changes occur when a contact network becomes mechanically unstable, particles “rearrange”, and the potential energy (when the strain is applied at constant packing fraction) or enthalpy (when the strain is applied at constant pressure) and all derivatives are discontinuous. During point changes, a single contact is either added to or removed from the contact network. For repulsive linear spring interactions, second- and higher-order derivatives of the potential energy/enthalpy are discontinuous at a point change, while for Hertzian interactions, third- and higher-order derivatives of the potential energy/enthalpy are discontinuous. We illustrate the importance of point changes by studying the transition from a hexagonal crystal to a disordered crystal induced by applying polydispersity strain. During this transition, the system only undergoes point changes, with no jump changes. We emphasize that one must understand point changes, as well as jump changes, to predict the mechanical properties of jammed packings. 
    more » « less
  5. We investigate the structural, vibrational, and mechanical properties of jammed packings of deformable particles with shape degrees of freedom in three dimensions (3D). Each 3D deformable particle is modeled as a surface-triangulated polyhedron, with spherical vertices whose positions are determined by a shape-energy function with terms that constrain the particle surface area, volume, and curvature, and prevent interparticle overlap. We show that jammed packings of deformable particles without bending energy possess low-frequency, quartic vibrational modes, whose number decreases with increasing asphericity and matches the number of missing contacts relative to the isostatic value. In contrast, jammed packings of deformable particles with non-zero bending energy are isostatic in 3D, with no quartic modes. We find that the contributions to the eigenmodes of the dynamical matrix from the shape degrees of freedom are significant over the full range of frequency and shape parameters for particles with zero bending energy. We further show that the ensemble-averaged shear modulus 〈 G 〉 scales with pressure P as 〈 G 〉 ∼ P β , with β ≈ 0.75 for jammed packings of deformable particles with zero bending energy. In contrast, β ≈ 0.5 for packings of deformable particles with non-zero bending energy, which matches the value for jammed packings of soft, spherical particles with fixed shape. These studies underscore the importance of incorporating particle deformability and shape change when modeling the properties of jammed soft materials. 
    more » « less