- NSF-PAR ID:
- Date Published:
- Journal Name:
- Nanoscale Horizons
- Page Range / eLocation ID:
- 735 to 746
- Medium: X
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
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null (Ed.)Cost-effective valorization of biomass into advanced carbon remains a challenge. Here we reported a facile and ultrafast laser writing technique to convert biomass into porous graphene for electrochemical sensing. Laser-induced graphene (LIG) was synthesized from a fully biomass-based film composed of kraft lignin (KL) and cellulose nanofibers (CNFs). The LIG-based electrode was applied to detect dopamine using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) techniques. Dopamine with a concentration ranging from 5 to 40 μM was detected linearly, with a sensitivity of 4.39 μA μM −1 cm −2 . Our study eliminated the use of synthetic polymer for lignin-based film formation. It demonstrated the feasibility of using the film fully composed of biomass for LIG formation. Furthermore, derived LIG electrodes were shown to have high electrochemical sensing performance.more » « less
This paper reports an integrated dual-modality microfluidic sensor chip, consisting of a patterned periodic array of nanoposts coated with gold (Au) and graphene oxide (GO), to detect target biomarker molecules in a limited sample volume. The device generates both electrochemical and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) signals from a single sensing area of Au–GO nanoposts. The Au–GO nanoposts are functionalized with specific receptor molecules, serving as a spatially well-defined nanostructured working electrode for electrochemical sensing, as well as a nanostructured plasmonic crystal for SPR-based sensing via the excitation of surface plasmon polaritons. High sensitivity of the electrochemical measurement originates from the presence of the nanoposts on the surface of the working electrode where radial diffusion of redox species occurs. Complementarily, the SPR detection allows convenient tracking of dynamic antigen–antibody interactions, to describe the association and dissociation phases occurring at the sensor surface. The soft-lithographically formed nanoposts provide high reproducibility of the sensor response to epidermal growth factor receptor ( ErbB2 ) molecules even at a femtomolar level. Sensitivities of the electrochemical measurements to ErbB2 are found to be 20.47 μA μM −1 cm −2 in a range from 1 fM to 0.1 μM, and those of the SPR measurements to be 1.35 nm μM −1 in a range from 10 pM to 1 nM, and 0.80 nm μM −1 in a range from 1 nM to 0.1 μM. The integrated dual-modality sensor offers higher sensitivity (through higher surface area and diffusions from nanoposts for electrochemical measurements), as well as the dynamic measurements of antigen–antibody bindings (through the SPR measurement), while operating simultaneously in a same sensing area using the same sample volume.more » « less
Printed 2D materials, derived from solution‐processed inks, offer scalable and cost‐effective routes to mechanically flexible optoelectronics. With micrometer‐scale control and broad processing latitude, aerosol‐jet printing (AJP) is of particular interest for all‐printed circuits and systems. Here, AJP is utilized to achieve ultrahigh‐responsivity photodetectors consisting of well‐aligned, percolating networks of semiconducting MoS2nanosheets and graphene electrodes on flexible polyimide substrates. Ultrathin (≈1.2 nm thick) and high‐aspect‐ratio (≈1 μm lateral size) MoS2nanosheets are obtained by electrochemical intercalation followed by megasonic atomization during AJP, which not only aerosolizes the inks but also further exfoliates the nanosheets. The incorporation of the high‐boiling‐point solvent terpineol into the MoS2ink is critical for achieving a highly aligned and flat thin‐film morphology following AJP as confirmed by grazing‐incidence wide‐angle X‐ray scattering and atomic force microscopy. Following AJP, curing is achieved with photonic annealing, which yields quasi‐ohmic contacts and photoactive channels with responsivities exceeding 103 A W−1that outperform previously reported all‐printed visible‐light photodetectors by over three orders of magnitude. Megasonic exfoliation coupled with properly designed AJP ink formulations enables the superlative optoelectronic properties of ultrathin MoS2nanosheets to be preserved and exploited for the scalable additive manufacturing of mechanically flexible optoelectronics.
Graphene with a 3D porous structure is directly laser‐induced on lignocellulosic biopaper under ambient conditions and is further explored for multifunctional biomass‐based flexible electronics. The mechanically strong, flexible, and waterproof biopaper is fabricated by surface‐functionalizing cellulose with lignin‐based epoxy acrylate (LBEA). This composite biopaper shows as high as a threefold increase in tensile strength and excellent waterproofing compared with pure cellulose one. Direct laser writing (DLW) rapidly induces porous graphene from the biopaper in a single step. The porous graphene shows an interconnected carbon network, well‐defined graphene domains, and high electrical conductivity (e.g., ≈3 Ω per square), which can be tuned by lignin precursors and loadings as well as lasing conditions. The biopaper in situ embedded with porous graphene is facilely fabricated into flexible electronics for on‐chip and paper‐based applications. The biopaper‐based electronic devices, including the all‐solid‐state planer supercapacitor, electrochemical and strain biosensors, and Joule heater, show great performances. This study demonstrates the facile, versatile, and low‐cost fabrication of multifunctional graphene‐based electronics from lignocellulose‐based biopaper.
Abstract Objective: Flexible Electrocorticography (ECoG) electrode arrays that conform to the cortical surface and record surface field potentials from multiple brain regions provide unique insights into how computations occurring in distributed brain regions mediate behavior. Specialized microfabrication methods are required to produce flexible ECoG devices with high-density electrode arrays. However, these fabrication methods are challenging for scientists without access to cleanroom fabrication equipment. Results: Here we present a fully desktop fabricated flexible graphene ECoG array. First, we synthesized a stable, conductive ink via liquid exfoliation of Graphene in Cyrene. Next, we established a stencil-printing process for patterning the graphene ink via laser-cut stencils on flexible polyimide substrates. Benchtop tests indicate that the graphene electrodes have good conductivity of ∼1.1 × 10 3 S cm −1 , flexibility to maintain their electrical connection under static bending, and electrochemical stability in a 15 d accelerated corrosion test. Chronically implanted graphene ECoG devices remain fully functional for up to 180 d, with average in vivo impedances of 24.72 ± 95.23 kΩ at 1 kHz. The ECoG device can measure spontaneous surface field potentials from mice under awake and anesthetized states and sensory stimulus-evoked responses. Significance: The stencil-printing fabrication process can be used to create Graphene ECoG devices with customized electrode layouts within 24 h using commonly available laboratory equipment.more » « less