skip to main content

Title: PMGAN: Paralleled Mix-Generator Generative Adversarial Networks with Balance Control
A Generative Adversarial Network (GAN) is an unsupervised generative framework to generate a sample distribution that is identical to the data distribution. Recently, mix strategy multi-generator/discriminator GANs have been shown to outperform single pair GANs. However, the mixed model suffers from the problem of linearly growing training time. Also, imbalanced training among generators makes it difficult to parallelize. In this paper, we propose a balanced mix-generator GAN that works in parallel by mixing multiple disjoint generators to approximate the real distribution. The weights of the discriminator and the classifier are controlled by a balance strategy. We also present an efficient loss function, to force each generator to embrace few modes with a high probability. Our model is naturally adaptive to large parallel computation frameworks. Each generator can be trained on multiple GPUs asynchronously. We have performed extensive experiments on synthetic datasets, MNIST1000, CIFAR-10, and ImageNet. The results establish that our model can achieve the state-of-the-art performance (in terms of the modes coverage and the inception score), with significantly reduced training time. We also show that the missing mode problem can be relieved with a growing number of generators.
Authors:
;
Award ID(s):
1743418
Publication Date:
NSF-PAR ID:
10098431
Journal Name:
The 27th International Conference on Artificial Neural Networks
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. A broad class of unsupervised deep learning methods such as Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) involve training of overparameterized models where the number of parameters of the model exceeds a certain threshold. Indeed, most successful GANs used in practice are trained using overparameterized generator and discriminator networks, both in terms of depth and width. A large body of work in supervised learning have shown the importance of model overparameterization in the convergence of the gradient descent (GD) to globally optimal solutions. In contrast, the unsupervised setting and GANs in particular involve non-convex concave mini-max optimization problems that are often trained using Gradient Descent/Ascent (GDA). The role and benefits of model overparameterization in the convergence of GDA to a global saddle point in non-convex concave problems is far less understood. In this work, we present a comprehensive analysis of the importance of model overparameterization in GANs both theoretically and empirically. We theoretically show that in an overparameterized GAN model with a 1-layer neural network generator and a linear discriminator, GDA converges to a global saddle point of the underlying non-convex concave min-max problem. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first result for global convergence of GDA in such settings.more »Our theory is based on a more general result that holds for a broader class of nonlinear generators and discriminators that obey certain assumptions (including deeper generators and random feature discriminators). Our theory utilizes and builds upon a novel connection with the convergence analysis of linear timevarying dynamical systems which may have broader implications for understanding the convergence behavior of GDA for non-convex concave problems involving overparameterized models. We also empirically study the role of model overparameterization in GANs using several large-scale experiments on CIFAR-10 and Celeb-A datasets. Our experiments show that overparameterization improves the quality of generated samples across various model architectures and datasets. Remarkably, we observe that overparameterization leads to faster and more stable convergence behavior of GDA across the board.« less
  2. We study the problem of learning conditional generators from noisy labeled samples, where the labels are corrupted by random noise. A standard training of conditional GANs will not only produce samples with wrong labels, but also generate poor quality samples. We consider two scenarios, depending on whether the noise model is known or not. When the distribution of the noise is known, we introduce a novel architecture which we call Robust Conditional GAN (RCGAN). The main idea is to corrupt the label of the generated sample before feeding to the adversarial discriminator, forcing the generator to produce samples with clean labels. This approach of passing through a matching noisy channel is justified by accompanying multiplicative approximation bounds between the loss of the RCGAN and the distance between the clean real distribution and the generator distribution. This shows that the proposed approach is robust, when used with a carefully chosen discriminator architecture, known as projection discriminator. When the distribution of the noise is not known, we provide an extension of our architecture, which we call RCGAN-U, that learns the noise model simultaneously while training the generator. We show experimentally on MNIST and CIFAR-10 datasets that both the approaches consistently improve uponmore »baseline approaches, and RCGAN-U closely matches the performance of RCGAN.« less
  3. We study the problem of learning conditional generators from noisy labeled samples, where the labels are corrupted by random noise. A standard training of conditional GANs will not only produce samples with wrong labels, but also generate poor quality samples. We consider two scenarios, depending on whether the noise model is known or not. When the distribution of the noise is known, we introduce a novel architecture which we call Robust Conditional GAN (RCGAN). The main idea is to corrupt the label of the generated sample before feeding to the adversarial discriminator, forcing the generator to produce samples with clean labels. This approach of passing through a matching noisy channel is justified by corresponding multiplicative approximation bounds between the loss of the RCGAN and the distance between the clean real distribution and the generator distribution. This shows that the proposed approach is robust, when used with a carefully chosen discriminator architecture, known as projection discriminator. When the distribution of the noise is not known, we provide an extension of our architecture, which we call RCGAN-U, that learns the noise model simultaneously while training the generator. We show experimentally on MNIST and CIFAR-10 datasets that both the approaches consistently improve uponmore »baseline approaches, and RCGAN-U closely matches the performance of RCGAN.« less
  4. Generative adversarial networks (GANs) are powerful tools for learning generative models. In practice, the training may suffer from lack of convergence. GANs are commonly viewed as a two-player zero-sum game between two neural networks. Here, we leverage this game theoretic view to study the convergence behavior of the training process. Inspired by the fictitious play learning process, a novel training method, referred to as Fictitious GAN, is introduced. Fictitious GAN trains the deep neural networks using a mixture of historical models. Specifically, the discriminator (resp. generator) is updated according to the best-response to the mixture outputs from a sequence of previously trained generators (resp. discriminators). It is shown that Fictitious GAN can effectively resolve some convergence issues that cannot be resolved by the standard training approach. It is proved that asymptotically the average of the generator outputs has the same distribution as the data samples.
  5. Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) have shown impressive results for image generation. However, GANs face challenges in generating contents with certain types of constraints, such as game levels. Specifically, it is difficult to generate levels that have aesthetic appeal and are playable at the same time. Additionally, because training data usually is limited, it is challenging to generate unique levels with current GANs. In this paper, we propose a new GAN architecture named Conditional Embedding Self-Attention Generative Adversarial Net- work (CESAGAN) and a new bootstrapping training procedure. The CESAGAN is a modification of the self-attention GAN that incorporates an embedding feature vector input to condition the training of the discriminator and generator. This allows the network to model non-local dependency between game objects, and to count objects. Additionally, to reduce the number of levels necessary to train the GAN, we propose a bootstrapping mechanism in which playable generated levels are added to the training set. The results demonstrate that the new approach does not only generate a larger number of levels that are playable but also generates fewer duplicate levels compared to a standard GAN.