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- International Conference on Machine Learning
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Many modern learning tasks involve fitting nonlinear models which are trained in an overparameterized regime where the parameters of the model exceed the size of the training dataset. Due to this overparameterization, the training loss may have infinitely many global minima and it is critical to understand the properties of the solutions found by first-order optimization schemes such as (stochastic) gradient descent starting from different initializations. In this paper we demonstrate that when the loss has certain properties over a minimally small neighborhood of the initial point, first order methods such as (stochastic) gradient descent have a few intriguing properties: (1) the iterates converge at a geometric rate to a global optima even when the loss is nonconvex, (2) among all global optima of the loss the iterates converge to one with a near minimal distance to the initial point, (3) the iterates take a near direct route from the initial point to this global optimum. As part of our proof technique, we introduce a new potential function which captures the tradeoff between the loss function and the distance to the initial point as the iterations progress. The utility of our general theory is demonstrated for a variety of problemmore »
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Vector-output ReLU Neural Network Problems are Copositive Programs: Convex Analysis of Two Layer Networks and Polynomial-time AlgorithmsWe describe the convex semi-infinite dual of the two-layer vector-output ReLU neural network training problem. This semi-infinite dual admits a finite dimensional representation, but its support is over a convex set which is difficult to characterize. In particular, we demonstrate that the non-convex neural network training problem is equivalent to a finite-dimensional convex copositive program. Our work is the first to identify this strong connection between the global optima of neural networks and those of copositive programs. We thus demonstrate how neural networks implicitly attempt to solve copositive programs via semi-nonnegative matrix factorization, and draw key insights from this formulation. We describe the first algorithms for provably finding the global minimum of the vector output neural network training problem, which are polynomial in the number of samples for a fixed data rank, yet exponential in the dimension. However, in the case of convolutional architectures, the computational complexity is exponential in only the filter size and polynomial in all other parameters. We describe the circumstances in which we can find the global optimum of this neural network training problem exactly with soft-thresholded SVD, and provide a copositive relaxation which is guaranteed to be exact for certain classes of problems, and whichmore »
Topology optimization by optimally distributing materials in a given domain requires non-gradient optimizers to solve highly complicated problems. However, with hundreds of design variables or more involved, solving such problems would require millions of Finite Element Method (FEM) calculations whose computational cost is huge and impractical. Here we report Self-directed Online Learning Optimization (SOLO) which integrates Deep Neural Network (DNN) with FEM calculations. A DNN learns and substitutes the objective as a function of design variables. A small number of training data is generated dynamically based on the DNN’s prediction of the optimum. The DNN adapts to the new training data and gives better prediction in the region of interest until convergence. The optimum predicted by the DNN is proved to converge to the true global optimum through iterations. Our algorithm was tested by four types of problems including compliance minimization, fluid-structure optimization, heat transfer enhancement and truss optimization. It reduced the computational time by 2 ~ 5 orders of magnitude compared with directly using heuristic methods, and outperformed all state-of-the-art algorithms tested in our experiments. This approach enables solving large multi-dimensional optimization problems.